Infection saliva gland hiv-HIV-associated salivary gland enlargement: a clinical review.

The HIV-infected population is increasing, and many of these patients are presenting atypical features. It is imperative that dentists be aware of these features to permit diagnosis and early treatment. We describe the case of an adult male with parotid swelling as the initial manifestation of HIV infection. This article emphasizes the need for suspicion of HIV infection when a patient reports with a cystic swelling of the parotid gland. A year-old man was referred to the department of maxillofacial surgery by a general physician because of a swelling of his right parotid gland that had been slowly increasing over 1 year Fig.

Infection saliva gland hiv

Infection saliva gland hiv

Infection saliva gland hiv

Infection saliva gland hiv

HIV positive children often present with bilateral parotid enlargement and the syndrome state with classical clinical and cytological features of lymphoid hyperplasia predominated[ 50 ]. Occurrence of oral lesions in relation to clinical and immunological status among HIV-infected adult Tanzanians. The aim of this article is to emphasize that a patient reporting with a cystic swelling of the parotid Free webcam people sites should raise suspicion of an HIV infection. In the context of HIV, the swelling may be due to a wide spectrum of Infection saliva gland hiv conditions that include reactive or inflammatory disorders, acute and chronic infections, and neoplasms. Fine needle aspiration cytology of BLEC reveals a heterogeneous lymphoid population, scattered foamy macrophages and anucleated squamous cells in a proteinaceous background. Diagnostic modalities Infection saliva gland hiv be non-invasive and invasive. The vascularity saliiva the parotid gland, underlying sialadenitis and cystic changes that szliva part of the pathological process leads to distorted tissue planes, with displacement of the facial nerve, making dissection extremely hazardous.

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Salivary gland infections. Lemon is rich in vitamin C. Exertional headache. Thank you! Sialadenosis, related to endocrine and nutritional conditions or neurogenic medications, may also be included in the differential diagnosis Ramos-Gomez, Poor dental health is associated with increased risk for conditions like…. The major site of persistence for BKV is the kidney and urinary tracts, with epithelial cells of the kidney, ureter, and bladder as the predominant cell types that are persistently infected Fields et al. Anal Sex : Tips from experts on how to be kinky yet safe Whether it irks you or stokes your fantasies, anal sex has always been an intriguing sexual act. Talk to your doctor if you feel a lump near your jaw, below your ear, or on the lower part of your cheek. Step up your defence: 15 proven tips on how to boost your immunity Want to naturally build up a stronger Infection saliva gland hiv Symptoms of salivary gland infection. This Star trek girls nude pics be due to a protective effect of the CD8 T-cells that predominate in the lymphocytic infiltrate in the salivary glands in that condition and are part of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome DILS Itescu et al. Chia seeds: How to consume this staple Aztec food to get a leaner body Chia seeds: What Infection saliva gland hiv the actual reason for its sudden popularity? You may also develop complications as a result of the underlying condition that is responsible for your salivary gland Infection saliva gland hiv.

The effect of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection on salivary glands has diagnostic and prognostic significance.

  • If you are experiencing difficulty in swallowing along with dry mouth, foul taste and discomfort on cheeks you are probably suffering from salivary gland infection.
  • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
  • Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit saliva.

The effect of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection on salivary glands has diagnostic and prognostic significance. Parotid gland swelling due to sicca syndrome, parotid lipomatosis, sialadenitis, diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome, benign lymphoepithelial lesions, neoplasms benign or malignant of salivary gland, parotid gland inflammation, diminished flow rates of saliva and xerostomia have been documented that also affects the health- associated characteristics of life in subjects infected with HIV.

There is a necessity for health care researchers to diagnose it, particularly as it might worsen if left undiagnosed. The precise characteristic of alterations in dynamics of salivary gland structure and functionality with long-standing usage of highly active anti-retroviral therapy still remains unknown. HIV positive children also present with bilateral parotid enlargement and the syndrome state with classical clinical and cytological features of predominated lymphoid hyperplasia.

Though various case reports and studies have been extensively published on different aspects of HIV-SGD, it has not been described solely, thus leading to occasional confusion of nomenclature and clinical presentation of HIV-SGD. Core tip: Since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus HIV , the world has kept acquired immunodeficiency syndrome high on the agenda, rallying around global and regional commitments to turn the tide on HIV infection.

There is limited data on the documentation of HIV salivary gland disease and the influence of highly active anti-retroviral therapy occurring on various components of salivary gland disorders in HIV. The purpose of writing this article is to review the clinical manifestations and the pathogenesis of salivary gland disorders in HIV in era of antiretroviral therapy and provide an update on latest treatment modalities in the management of various salivary gland disorders. Since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus HIV , the world has kept acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS high on the agenda, rallying around global and regional commitments and goals to address and turn the tide on HIV infection.

Patients with HIV infection are prone to salivary gland disease. These oral manifestations can act as markers of immune reconstitution or as a marker of HAART failure. The purpose of writing this article is to review the clinical manifestations and the pathogenesis of salivary gland disorders in HIV in era of antiretroviral therapy and provide an update on the latest treatment modalities in the management of various salivary gland disorders.

There are however noticeable serologic and histopathological distinctions concerning both the diseases[ 2 ]. The presence of lymphoid tissue within a salivary gland capsule has been observed only in parotid gland while the submandibular lymph nodes lie adjacent to, but outside the glandular capsule[ 9 ]. An awareness of HIV-SGD may prevent unnecessary surgeries in these patients, a biopsy being necessary only in those cases suspected of harboring a malignancy[ 10 ]. The homeostasis of the oral cavity is altered in subjects with HIV-SGD due to quantitative variations ensuing in the saliva such as reduced secretory levels of lysozyme, sodium, calcium chloride, total anti-oxidant capacity and cystatin[ 11 ].

HIV infected patients have been reported to be having a considerably greater possibility of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia as compared to patients who are not infected[ 12 ]. The reduced absolute CD4 cell counts were substantially correlated with a greater frequency of zero unstimulated salivary flow rates in HIV patients[ 17 ].

Reduced salivary flow rates have also been attributed to HIV infection, side effect of HAART, or in correlation to considerable salivary gland disease[ 19 , 20 ].

It is difficult to determine whether the subjective alterations related to salivary flow hyposalivation, xerostomia, and dysgeusia can be attributed to HIV disease or HAART[ 21 ]. Among HAART, protease inhibitors PI and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors NRTIs have been especially been known to induce xerostomia probably by exertion of an anti-secretory effect on acinar cells[ 12 ].

Other researchers had suggested that the PIs changes adipose tissue deposition within the salivary gland[ 22 ]. HIV p24 antigen in the salivary gland and a viral load of greater than copies were also found to correlate with a higher prevalence of xerostomia[ 23 ].

A considerable diminution of saliva in response to proportion of the increased number of years of usage of antiretroviral therapy has also been reported[ 21 ]. However documentation in all the epidemiologic studies has relied on the presumptive criteria of EC-Clearinghouse classification which will not give the true prevalence of xerostomia. The subjective finding negligible saliva and objective i. However, studies have taken different parameters like unstimulated and chewing gum stimulated whole saliva and parotid gland saliva.

Therefore research should be conducted on unstimulated whole saliva in a preferably longitudinal study to understand the exact effects of HAART and HIV on salivary gland hypofunction.

The sequelae of reduced salivary flow are increased caries prevalence, increased oral candidiasis, dysguesia and periodontal diseases[ 17 , 21 ]. Lithium, muriatic and sulfuric acids and lye, the constituents of crystal methamphetamine, have been considered as causative factors. In a study conducted in , high concentrations of the HIV p24 antigen in the salivary gland and a viral load of greater than copies were found to correlate with a higher prevalence of xerostomia[ 5 ].

The protease inhibitors stimulate peripheral lipodystrophy that is triggered by inhibition of proteins which control metabolism of lipids[ 26 ]. A rare condition of Lymphoepithelial lesions observed in the parotid gland is correlated with a greater frequency in HIV patients[ 28 ]. Lymphoepithelial lesions represent a probable confined or limited expression of PGL[ 28 ]. However, the etiopathogenesis of lymphoepithelial lesions is still unknown.

The lymphoepithelial lesions may originate from inclusions of the major salivary gland located in lymph nodes mainly intra-parotid lymph nodes.

Another possibility of lymphoepithelial lesion developing from the parenchymal component of the salivary glands has also been postulated[ 28 - 30 ]. Parotid lympho epithelial cysts are easily diagnosed by ultrasonography.

These lesions often become large leading to societal stigmata[ 28 ]. The lymphoepithelial lesions are typically benign. However there is always a distinct possibility of their conversion to lymphomas. Thus, continuous and periodic follow-up should be conducted for these lesions and should not be disregarded[ 31 ].

DiGiuseppe et al[ 32 ] postulated persistent generalized lymphadenopathy to be a cause of benign lymphoepithelial lesions in parotid gland. An increased viral load is also known to be associated with salivary gland enlargement by altering the expression of strategic cellular genes[ 33 ].

Ihrler et al[ 30 ] had demonstrated a secondarily lymphoid penetration of parenchymal component of the salivary gland that induces a lymphoepithelial reaction of striated salivary gland ducts. Owotade et al[ 34 ] had reported 5 cases of parotid gland enlargement and had managed them with different modalities like Fine needle Aspiration, Anti-retroviral therapy and parotidectomy.

The conditions that can simulate lymphoepithelial cysts are salivary gland duct retention cyst mucocele , mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma that may possess cystic constituent and polycystic parotid disease[ 35 ]. The possibility of papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum should also be excluded in these patients[ 36 ].

The involvement of ranula as an oral manifestation in HIV patients has been suggested which still has not been established. The precise etiopathogenesis of the association amongst these dual dissimilar pathological conditions is ambiguous. Chidzonga et al[ 38 ] had documented a high prevalence rate A case report documented that without any surgical intervention, sublingual mucocele had entirely lapsed after initiation of HAART[ 39 ].

Case control studies are required to evaluate the degree of periductal lymphocytosis, isolation of viral particles and chemical analysis of the mucus present in ranula[ 40 ]. The greatest risk for salivary gland carcinoma was found to be lymphoepithelial carcinoma, which is an undifferentiated carcinoma associated with Epstein Barr virus and also having a prominent non-neoplastic lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate[ 41 ].

The common histological subtypes of salivary gland malignancy like mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma seen in general population are not commonly seen in HIV patients[ 41 ]. The greater probability of squamous cell carcinomas of both nasopharynx and salivary glands could be ascribed to tobacco or alcohol usage, which are frequent in HIV subjects and related to other malignancies in the head and neck region[ 43 ].

HIV p24 was observed in lymphocytes and macrophages correspondingly[ 46 ]. The highest prevalence of cells seen in chronic nonspecific sialadenitis were CD8 lymphocytes, while CD68 macrophages were predominant in the mycobacteriosis-associated granulomatous and nonspecific diffuse macrophagic sialadenitis[ 46 ]. Chronic sialadenitis of non-specific origin 29 cases was the frequent change observed followed by various conditions of infectious origin 22 cases.

Amongst the infectious conditions, 10 patients had Mycobacteriosis, followed by nine patients with cytomegalovirus infection, cryptococcosis in three patients and lastly histoplasmosis in two patients[ 47 ]. HIV positive children often present with bilateral parotid enlargement and the syndrome state with classical clinical and cytological features of lymphoid hyperplasia predominated[ 50 ].

Parotid gland enlargement is a common condition found in pediatric patients with HIV infection. DILS or Sjogren syndrome- resembling condition, first seen in pediatric HIV infection, is a CD8 lymphocyte facilitated syndrome that might involve the submandibular as well as parotid salivary glands[ 52 ]. Artificial salivary glands are also being formulated[ 54 ].

Advanced Search. This Article. Citation of this article. Sharma G, Nagpal A. Corresponding Author of This Article.

Publishing Process of This Article. Research Domain of This Article. Dentistry, Oral Surgery and Medicine. Article-Type of This Article. Open-Access Policy of This Article. This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers.

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All rights reserved. World J Dermatol. Author contributions : Sharma G and Nagpal A contributed to the manuscript; literature collection was done by Sharma G; writing and editing of the manuscript was done by Sharma G and Nagpal A. Conflict-of-interest : The authors have no conflict of interest related to this manuscript. Open-Access : This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers.

Key Words: Human immunodeficiency virus , Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , Salivary gland diseases , Antiretroviral therapy , Highly active , Xerostomia. Citation: Sharma G, Nagpal A. J Oral Pathol Med. Part II. Rheumatology Oxford. Changing prevalence of oral manifestations of human immuno-deficiency virus in the era of protease inhibitor therapy.

Oral Dis. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on salivary flow in patients with human-immuno deficiency virus disease in Southern India. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. BMC Oral Health. Replication of oral BK virus in human salivary gland cells. J Virol. HIV lymphadenitis of the salivary gland: A case with cytological and histological correlation.

You've been diagnosed with a salivary gland infection and symptoms get worse. But these come with a host side-effects. Oral diseases associated with hepatitis C virus infection. People with severe or chronic salivary gland infections will need ongoing medical care, especially if the infection is related to underlying medical conditions. Chest X-Ray A chest x-ray is a diagnostic test that uses x-rays to visualize the structures inside your chest. The type of stomatitis will determine your treatment plan.

Infection saliva gland hiv

Infection saliva gland hiv. Causes Of Salivary Gland Infection

This may lead to infection. You have three pairs of large major salivary glands. Parotid glands, which are the largest, are inside each cheek. They sit above your jaw in front of your ears. A salivary gland infection is typically caused by a bacterial infection. Others causes of salivary gland infection include:. These infections result from reduced saliva production. This is often caused by the blockage or inflammation of the salivary gland duct.

Viruses and other medical conditions can also reduce saliva production, including:. The following list of symptoms may indicate a salivary gland infection. You should consult your doctor for an accurate diagnosis. Symptoms of a salivary gland infection can mimic those of other conditions.

Symptoms include:. Your symptoms may require emergency treatment. Salivary gland infection complications are uncommon. If a salivary gland infection is left untreated, pus can collect and form an abscess in the salivary gland.

A salivary gland infection caused by a benign tumor may cause an enlargement of the glands. Malignant cancerous tumors can grow quickly and cause loss of movement in the affected side of the face.

This can impair part or all of the area. In cases where parotitis happens again, severe swelling of the neck can destroy the affected glands.

You may also have complications if the initial bacterial infection spreads from the salivary gland to other parts of the body. Your doctor can diagnose a salivary gland infection with a visual exam. Pus or pain at the affected gland can indicate a bacterial infection. If your doctor suspects a salivary gland infection, you may have additional testing to confirm the diagnosis and determine the underlying cause. The following imaging tests can be used to further analyze a salivary gland infection caused by an abscess, salivary stone, or tumor:.

Your doctor may also perform a biopsy of the affected salivary glands and ducts to test tissue or fluid for bacteria or viruses. Treatment depends on the severity of the infection, the underlying cause, and any additional symptoms you have, such as swelling or pain.

Antibiotics may be used to treat a bacterial infection, pus, or fever. A fine needle aspiration may be used to drain an abscess. However, it may be necessary in cases of chronic or recurring infections. Though uncommon, surgical treatment may involve removal of part or all of the parotid salivary gland or removal of the submandibular salivary gland. The best way to reduce your risk of developing an infection is to drink plenty of fluids and practice good oral hygiene.

Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues — Bones of jaws. Agnathia Alveolar osteitis Buccal exostosis Cherubism Idiopathic osteosclerosis Mandibular fracture Microgenia Micrognathia Intraosseous cysts Odontogenic : periapical Dentigerous Buccal bifurcation Lateral periodontal Globulomaxillary Calcifying odontogenic Glandular odontogenic Non-odontogenic: Nasopalatine duct Median mandibular Median palatal Traumatic bone Osteoma Osteomyelitis Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonate-associated Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis Osteoradionecrosis Osteoporotic bone marrow defect Paget's disease of bone Periapical abscess Phoenix abscess Periapical periodontitis Stafne defect Torus mandibularis.

Temporomandibular joints , muscles of mastication and malocclusions — Jaw joints, chewing muscles and bite abnormalities. Salivary glands. Orofacial soft tissues — Soft tissues around the mouth. Eagle syndrome Hemifacial hypertrophy Facial hemiatrophy Oral manifestations of systemic disease. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Palate Bednar's aphthae Cleft palate High-arched palate Palatal cysts of the newborn Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia Stomatitis nicotina Torus palatinus.

Periodontium gingiva , periodontal ligament , cementum , alveolus — Gums and tooth-supporting structures Cementicle Cementoblastoma Gigantiform Cementoma Eruption cyst Epulis Pyogenic granuloma Congenital epulis Gingival enlargement Gingival cyst of the adult Gingival cyst of the newborn Gingivitis Desquamative Granulomatous Plasma cell Hereditary gingival fibromatosis Hypercementosis Hypocementosis Linear gingival erythema Necrotizing periodontal diseases Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis Pericoronitis Peri-implantitis Periodontal abscess Periodontal trauma Periodontitis Aggressive As a manifestation of systemic disease Chronic Perio-endo lesion Teething.

Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues — Bones of jaws Agnathia Alveolar osteitis Buccal exostosis Cherubism Idiopathic osteosclerosis Mandibular fracture Microgenia Micrognathia Intraosseous cysts Odontogenic : periapical Dentigerous Buccal bifurcation Lateral periodontal Globulomaxillary Calcifying odontogenic Glandular odontogenic Non-odontogenic: Nasopalatine duct Median mandibular Median palatal Traumatic bone Osteoma Osteomyelitis Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonate-associated Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis Osteoradionecrosis Osteoporotic bone marrow defect Paget's disease of bone Periapical abscess Phoenix abscess Periapical periodontitis Stafne defect Torus mandibularis.

Temporomandibular joints , muscles of mastication and malocclusions — Jaw joints, chewing muscles and bite abnormalities Bruxism Condylar resorption Mandibular dislocation Malocclusion Crossbite Open bite Overbite Overeruption Overjet Prognathia Retrognathia Scissor bite Maxillary hypoplasia Temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

HIV-associated salivary gland enlargement: a clinical review

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Gradual enlargement of the major salivary glands, particularly the parotid glands. Ship Burket's Oral Medicine.

Advances in Dental Research. Oral and maxillofacial pathology K00—K06, K11—K14 , —, — Bednar's aphthae Cleft palate High-arched palate Palatal cysts of the newborn Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia Stomatitis nicotina Torus palatinus.

Oral mucosa — Lining of mouth. Teeth pulp , dentin , enamel. Periodontium gingiva , periodontal ligament , cementum , alveolus — Gums and tooth-supporting structures. Cementicle Cementoblastoma Gigantiform Cementoma Eruption cyst Epulis Pyogenic granuloma Congenital epulis Gingival enlargement Gingival cyst of the adult Gingival cyst of the newborn Gingivitis Desquamative Granulomatous Plasma cell Hereditary gingival fibromatosis Hypercementosis Hypocementosis Linear gingival erythema Necrotizing periodontal diseases Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis Pericoronitis Peri-implantitis Periodontal abscess Periodontal trauma Periodontitis Aggressive As a manifestation of systemic disease Chronic Perio-endo lesion Teething.

Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues — Bones of jaws. Agnathia Alveolar osteitis Buccal exostosis Cherubism Idiopathic osteosclerosis Mandibular fracture Microgenia Micrognathia Intraosseous cysts Odontogenic : periapical Dentigerous Buccal bifurcation Lateral periodontal Globulomaxillary Calcifying odontogenic Glandular odontogenic Non-odontogenic: Nasopalatine duct Median mandibular Median palatal Traumatic bone Osteoma Osteomyelitis Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonate-associated Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis Osteoradionecrosis Osteoporotic bone marrow defect Paget's disease of bone Periapical abscess Phoenix abscess Periapical periodontitis Stafne defect Torus mandibularis.

Temporomandibular joints , muscles of mastication and malocclusions — Jaw joints, chewing muscles and bite abnormalities. Salivary glands. Orofacial soft tissues — Soft tissues around the mouth. Eagle syndrome Hemifacial hypertrophy Facial hemiatrophy Oral manifestations of systemic disease.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Palate Bednar's aphthae Cleft palate High-arched palate Palatal cysts of the newborn Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia Stomatitis nicotina Torus palatinus. Periodontium gingiva , periodontal ligament , cementum , alveolus — Gums and tooth-supporting structures Cementicle Cementoblastoma Gigantiform Cementoma Eruption cyst Epulis Pyogenic granuloma Congenital epulis Gingival enlargement Gingival cyst of the adult Gingival cyst of the newborn Gingivitis Desquamative Granulomatous Plasma cell Hereditary gingival fibromatosis Hypercementosis Hypocementosis Linear gingival erythema Necrotizing periodontal diseases Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis Pericoronitis Peri-implantitis Periodontal abscess Periodontal trauma Periodontitis Aggressive As a manifestation of systemic disease Chronic Perio-endo lesion Teething.

Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues — Bones of jaws Agnathia Alveolar osteitis Buccal exostosis Cherubism Idiopathic osteosclerosis Mandibular fracture Microgenia Micrognathia Intraosseous cysts Odontogenic : periapical Dentigerous Buccal bifurcation Lateral periodontal Globulomaxillary Calcifying odontogenic Glandular odontogenic Non-odontogenic: Nasopalatine duct Median mandibular Median palatal Traumatic bone Osteoma Osteomyelitis Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonate-associated Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis Osteoradionecrosis Osteoporotic bone marrow defect Paget's disease of bone Periapical abscess Phoenix abscess Periapical periodontitis Stafne defect Torus mandibularis.

Temporomandibular joints , muscles of mastication and malocclusions — Jaw joints, chewing muscles and bite abnormalities Bruxism Condylar resorption Mandibular dislocation Malocclusion Crossbite Open bite Overbite Overeruption Overjet Prognathia Retrognathia Scissor bite Maxillary hypoplasia Temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

Orofacial soft tissues — Soft tissues around the mouth Actinomycosis Angioedema Basal cell carcinoma Cutaneous sinus of dental origin Cystic hygroma Gnathophyma Ludwig's angina Macrostomia Melkersson—Rosenthal syndrome Microstomia Noma Oral Crohn's disease Orofacial granulomatosis Perioral dermatitis Pyostomatitis vegetans.

Other Eagle syndrome Hemifacial hypertrophy Facial hemiatrophy Oral manifestations of systemic disease.

Infection saliva gland hiv