Who invented the fist workable typer-Typewriter - Wikipedia

A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium such as paper or cloth , thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium was brushed or rubbed repeatedly to achieve the transfer of ink, and accelerated the process. The movable-type printing press was invented in South Korea. Printing in East Asia had been prevalent since the Tang dynasty , [3] [4] and in Europe, woodblock printing based on existing screw presses was common by the 14th century. His newly devised hand mould made possible the precise and rapid creation of metal movable type in large quantities.

Who invented the fist workable typer

Who invented the fist workable typer

Who invented the fist workable typer

A number of typographical conventions originate from the widespread use of Free online lesbian sex clip typewriter, based on the characteristics and limitations of the typewriter itself. A different fluid was available for correcting stencils. The system included a computer-driven input station to capture the key strokes on magnetic tape and insert the operator's format commands, and a Composer unit to read the tape and produce the formatted text for photo reproduction. This was eventually achieved with various ingenious mechanical designs and so-called "visible typewriters" which Who invented the fist workable typer frontstriking, in which the typebars struck forward against the front side of the platen, became standard. There is no cylindrical platen as on typebar typewriters; the paper is hit against the shuttle by a hammer. Random House Digital, Inc. Johannes Gutenberg 's work on the printing press began in approximately when he partnered with Andreas Dritzehn—a man who Haem anus previously instructed in gem-cutting—and Andreas Heilmann, owner of a paper mill. Towards the end of the commercial Who invented the fist workable typer of typewriters in the s, a number of hybrid designs combining features of printers were introduced.

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Global Standards 1 4. The April, issue of Mad Magazine featured a giant barcode on the cover, with the blurb "[Mad] Hopes this issue jams up every computer in the country Say goodbye Who invented the fist workable typer all those newbies buying up RE in Cape Charles at hair raising prices. You tell me which one of is crazy. On modern keyboards, the exclamation point is the shifted character on the 1 key, a direct result of the historical fact that these were the inventde characters to become "standard" on keyboards. According to a Boston typewriter repairman quoted by The Boston Globe"Every maternity ward has a typewriter, as well as funeral homes". So cist will still be getting acidic. We should start with getting rid of cellphones, which are made from plastic which Sexual products alternative health reading from oil. The Indians were in a great hurry about something, and were packing up and getting away typet fast as they could. Why on earth would you be against of a inventwd in CO2 emissions? You need to get yourself a brown paper bag, not a plastic bag, and Who invented the fist workable typer your head in it and try to calm down your breathing. The Bolivian Andes are being raped for lithium as we speak so-called sustainables always have a poison pill. The second character workqble then encoded by Infirmiers nues the width of the white spaces between these bars. My explanation is based upon chemical reactions in the interior of the Sun in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

Numerous inventors in Europe and the U.

  • A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by a printer's movable type.
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  • A barcode also spelled bar code is a method of representing data in a visual, machine-readable form.

Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born scientist and inventor best known for inventing the first working telephone in and founding the Bell Telephone Company in Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on March 3, During his youth, Bell was strongly influenced by his family and his environs. His grandfather and father were experts on the mechanics of voice and elocution. And Bell's mother, Eliza, became an accomplished pianist despite being deaf, inspiring him to undertake big challenges.

Eliza home-schooled her son and instilled an infinite curiosity of the world around him. Though a mediocre student, Bell displayed an uncommon ability to solve problems. At age 12, while playing with a friend in a grain mill, he noticed the slow process of husking the wheat grain. He went home and built a device with rotating paddles and nail brushes that easily removed the husks from the grain.

Seeking a way out, Alexander volunteered to care for his grandfather when he fell ill in The elder Bell encouraged young Alexander and instilled an appreciation for learning and intellectual pursuits.

At first, Alexander resisted, for he was establishing himself in London. He eventually relented after both his brothers died of tuberculosis. In , the family settled in Brantford, Ontario, Canada.

There, Alexander set up a workshop to continue his study of the human voice. On July 11, , Bell married Mable Hubbard, a former student and the daughter of Gardiner Hubbard, one of his early financial backers.

Bell is credited with inventing the telephone; in all, he personally held 18 patents along with 12 he shared with collaborators. He found financial backing through local investors Thomas Sanders and Gardiner Hubbard. Between and , Bell spent long days and nights trying to perfect the harmonic telegraph. But during his experiments, he became interested in another idea, transmitting the human voice over wires.

Through and , Bell and Watson labored on both the harmonic telegraph and a voice transmitting device. For now the concept was protected, but the device still had to be developed. In , Bell and Watson were finally successful. Watson, come here — I want to see you. With this success, Bell began to promote the telephone in a series of public demonstrations. The Bell Telephone Company was organized on July 9, In January , Bell was invited to make the first transcontinental phone call. By all accounts, Bell was not a sharp businessman and by began to turn business matters over to Hubbard and others so he could pursue a wide range of inventions and intellectual pursuits.

Later in his life, Bell became fascinated with flight and began exploring the possibilities for flying machines and devices, starting with the tetrahedral kite in s. The group developed several flying machines, including the Silver Dart.

The Silver Dart was the first powered aircraft flown in Canada. Bell later worked on hydrofoils and set a world speed record for this type of boat. After their wedding, Alexander and Mable traveled to Europe demonstrating the telephone.

Others claimed they had invented the telephone or had conceived of the idea before Bell. Over the next 18 years, the Bell Company faced over court challenges, including several that went to the Supreme Court , but none were successful.

Even during the patent battles, the company grew. Between and , over , people in the United States owned telephones. Improvements were made on the device including the addition of a microphone, invented by Thomas Edison , which eliminated the need to shout into the telephone to be heard.

Throughout his life, Bell continued his family's work with the deaf, establishing the American Association to Promote Teaching of Speech to the Deaf in Eight years later, Bell assumed the presidency of a small, little-known U. Shortly after his death, the entire telephone system was shut down for one minute in tribute to his genius.

We strive for accuracy and fairness. Sign up for the Biography newsletters to receive stories daily and weekly about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. British astrophysicist, scholar and trailblazer Jocelyn Bell Burnell discovered the space-based phenomena known as pulsars, going on to establish herself as an esteemed leader in her field.

Thomas Edison is credited with inventions such as the first practical incandescent light bulb and the phonograph. He held over 1, patents for his inventions. Alexander Fleming was a doctor and bacteriologist who discovered penicillin, receiving the Nobel Prize in Gertrude Bell was a British writer, archaeologist and political officer best known for helping to establish modern Iraq after World War I.

Scottish engineer John Logie Baird made the first mechanical television, which was able to transmit pictures of objects in motion. He also demonstrated color television in David Livingstone was a Scottish missionary, abolitionist and physician known for his explorations of Africa, having crossed the continent during the midth century. Graham Young is best known as the Teacup Poisoner, responsible for the killing of at least three people in England.

Biography Newsletters. Thomas Edison. Helen Keller.

Images from Boston, New England, and beyond. AIRS data shows instead that carbon dioxide, which has seen its rate of increase accelerating from 1 part per million in to 2 parts per million today, would require about two to three years before it blends in, he said. As to the scientific method, it is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. Even in an extreme scenario, fossil fuels will still make up 77 percent of global energy demand through , according to Wood Mackenzie. At seven in the evening we went to bed in the second story — with our clothes on, as usual, and all three in the same bed, for every available space on the floors, chairs, etc. I was going to get gas that evening, and was just about out when the power went out, so that was it for me. CO2 takes a long time to leave the atmosphere, whereas water vapor is cyclical, too much and it rains or snows.

Who invented the fist workable typer

Who invented the fist workable typer

Who invented the fist workable typer

Who invented the fist workable typer

Who invented the fist workable typer

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In , the United States Department of Defense adopted the use of Code 39 for marking all products sold to the United States military. Barcodes are widely used around the world in many contexts. In addition, retail chain membership cards use barcodes to identify customers, allowing for customized marketing and greater understanding of individual consumer shopping patterns.

At the point of sale, shoppers can get product discounts or special marketing offers through the address or e-mail address provided at registration. Barcodes are widely used in the healthcare and hospital settings , ranging from patient identification to access patient data, including medical history, drug allergies, etc. They are also used to facilitate the separation and indexing of documents that have been imaged in batch scanning applications, track the organization of species in biology, [19] and integrate with in-motion checkweighers to identify the item being weighed in a conveyor line for data collection.

They can also be used to keep track of objects and people; they are used to keep track of rental cars , airline luggage , nuclear waste , registered mail , express mail and parcels. Barcoded tickets which may be printed by the customer on their home printer, or stored on their mobile device allow the holder to enter sports arenas, cinemas, theatres, fairgrounds, and transportation, and are used to record the arrival and departure of vehicles from rental facilities etc.

Barcodes are widely used in shop floor control applications software where employees can scan work orders and track the time spent on a job. A series of barcodes are used in some kinds of absolute 1D linear encoder. The barcodes are packed close enough together that the reader always has one or two barcodes in its field of view.

As a kind of fiducial marker , the relative position of the barcode in the field of view of the reader gives incremental precise positioning, in some cases with sub-pixel resolution. The data decoded from the barcode gives the absolute coarse position.

An "address carpet", such as Howell's binary pattern and the Anoto dot pattern, is a 2D barcode designed so that a reader, even though only a tiny portion of the complete carpet is in the field of view of the reader, can find its absolute X,Y position and rotation in the carpet. A mobile device with an inbuilt camera might be used to read the pattern and browse the linked website, which can help a shopper find the best price for an item in the vicinity.

Some applications for barcodes have fallen out of use. In the s and s, software source code was occasionally encoded in a barcode and printed on paper Cauzin Softstrip and Paperbyte [23] are barcode symbologies specifically designed for this application , and the Barcode Battler computer game system used any standard barcode to generate combat statistics. Artists have used barcodes in art, such as Scott Blake's Barcode Jesus, as part of the post-modernism movement.

The mapping between messages and barcodes is called a symbology. The specification of a symbology includes the encoding of the message into bars and spaces, any required start and stop markers, the size of the quiet zone required to be before and after the barcode, and the computation of a checksum.

Some symbologies use interleaving. The first character is encoded using black bars of varying width. The second character is then encoded by varying the width of the white spaces between these bars. Thus characters are encoded in pairs over the same section of the barcode. Interleaved 2 of 5 is an example of this. Linear symbologies are optimized for laser scanners, which sweep a light beam across the barcode in a straight line, reading a slice of the barcode light-dark patterns.

Scanning at an angle makes the modules appear wider, but does not change the width ratios. Stacked symbologies are also optimized for laser scanning, with the laser making multiple passes across the barcode.

In the s development of charge-coupled device CCD imagers to read barcodes was pioneered by Welch Allyn. Imaging does not require moving parts, as a laser scanner does. In , linear imaging had begun to supplant laser scanning as the preferred scan engine for its performance and durability. They must be scanned by an image-based scanner employing a CCD or other digital camera sensor technology.

The earliest, and still the cheapest, barcode scanners are built from a fixed light and a single photosensor that is manually "scrubbed" across the barcode. Barcode scanners can be classified into three categories based on their connection to the computer. The older type is the RS barcode scanner. This type requires special programming for transferring the input data to the application program. The barcode's data is sent to the computer as if it had been typed on the keyboard.

Like the keyboard interface scanner, USB scanners are easy to install and do not need custom code for transferring input data to the application program. On PCs running Windows the HID interface emulates the data merging action of a hardware "keyboard wedge", and the scanner automatically behaves like an additional keyboard. Many phones are able to decode barcodes using their built-in camera, as well. Google's mobile Android operating system uses both their own Google Goggles application or third party barcode scanners like Scan.

Windows Phone 7. However, these devices are not designed specifically for the capturing of barcodes. As a result, they do not decode nearly as quickly or accurately as a dedicated barcode scanner or portable data terminal.

Any trading partner in the supply chain can test barcode quality. It is important to verify a barcode to ensure that any reader in the supply chain can successfully interpret a barcode with a low error rate.

Retailers levy large penalties for non-compliant barcodes. A barcode verifier works the way a reader does, but instead of simply decoding a barcode, a verifier performs a series of tests.

For linear barcodes these tests are:. Depending on the parameter, each ANSI test is graded from 0. Each grade is determined by analyzing the scan reflectance profile SRP , an analog graph of a single scan line across the entire symbol. The lowest of the 8 grades is the scan grade, and the overall ISO symbol grade is the average of the individual scan grades. Compared with a reader, a verifier measures a barcode's optical characteristics to international and industry standards.

The measurement must be repeatable and consistent. Doing so requires constant conditions such as distance, illumination angle, sensor angle and verifier aperture. This standard defines the quality requirements for barcodes and matrix codes also called optical codes. For example:. Besides sales and inventory tracking, barcodes are very useful in logistics and supply chain management. Barcode scanners are relatively low cost and extremely accurate compared to key-entry, with only about 1 substitution error in 15, to 36 trillion characters entered.

A first generation, "one dimensional" barcode that is made up of lines and spaces of various widths that create specific patterns.

A matrix code , also termed a 2D barcode or simply a 2D code , is a two-dimensional way to represent information. First and last digit are always placed outside the symbol to indicate Quiet Zones that are necessary for barcode scanners to work properly. Lorem ipsum boilerplate text as four segment Data Matrix 2D. Two different 2D barcodes used in film: Dolby Digital between the sprocket holes with the "Double-D" logo in the middle, and Sony Dynamic Digital Sound in the blue area to the left of the sprocket holes.

It is open in that the specification is disclosed and the patent is not exercised. MaxiCode example. This encodes the string "Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia".

In architecture, a building in Lingang New City by German architects Gerkan, Marg and Partners incorporates a barcode design, [76] as does a shopping mall called Shtrikh-kod Russian for barcode in Narodnaya ulitsa "People's Street" in the Nevskiy district of St. Petersburg , Russia. Also, QR codes can be scanned for an extra mission on Watch Dogs.

In the Terminator films shows Skynet burns barcodes onto the inside surface of the wrists of captive humans in a similar location to the WW2 concentration camp tattoos as a unique identifier. In music, Dave Davies of The Kinks released a solo album in , AFL, which featured a giant barcode on the front cover in place of the musician's head. The album's name was also the barcode number.

The April, issue of Mad Magazine featured a giant barcode on the cover, with the blurb "[Mad] Hopes this issue jams up every computer in the country The global public launch of the barcode [ when? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the taxonomic method, see DNA barcoding. This article duplicates the scope of other articles , specifically, Universal Product Code History.

Please discuss this issue on the talk page and edit it to conform with Wikipedia's Manual of Style. December Main article: Universal Product Code.

Main article: Barcode reader. An example of a stacked barcode. Specifically a "Codablock" barcode. Stuff You Should Know. Retrieved 5 June Retrieved 26 May John Keyes Boston photoblogger. Images from Boston, New England, and beyond.

John Keyes. Archived from the original on 10 March New York Times. The Economist. Retrieved 5 February American Way. Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved Archived from the original on 25 September Peterborough, N. Archived from the original on 14 November Retrieved 27 November Spreading the Barcode. Retrieved 31 July BarCode 1. Adams Communications. Retrieved 28 November US Patented Quick Notes Inc. Retrieved 15 December March IEEE Computer. Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.

Byte magazine. September Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 23 November Retailer compliance initiatives can lead to efficiency". Frontline Solutions. Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 2 August Global Standards 1. Archived PDF from the original on 20 July Global Standards 1 4.

Reading Between The Lines , p. Bibcode : PLoSO.. Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 12 January Retrieved 10 June Colour Code Technologies. Archived from the original on 29 August Archived from the original on 21 February And it has changed in both directions, hot and cold.

Industrialization did not happen until the 17th century. Therefore, no prior changes in climate were driven by human emissions of carbon dioxide. Polar bears and the ice caps are actually doing fine. The 10,year Holocene paleoclimatology records reveal that both the Arctic and Antarctic are in some of their healthiest states.

Despite huge losses in recent decades, ice mass levels are at or near their historic highs. Polar bears are one of the key species in the Arctic. Contrary to the hype surrounding their extinction fear, the population numbers have actually increased in the past two decades.

Last year, the Canadian government considered increasing polar bear killing quotas as their increasing numbers posed a threat to the Inuit communities living in the Nunavut area.

The entire climate cabal was in for a rude awakening when global temperature between and failed to rise as anticipated. This proved that atmospheric CO2 concentrations are not the primary factor controlling global temperature. Soon in Geophysical Research Letters has reviewed much of the literature on air temperature-CO2 relationships. There has been no increase in the frequency or intensity of floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, wildfires, droughts, or other extreme weather events.

So, stop listening to these people. As we speak, California is planning to add climate change fear to the school curriculum. We are raising a generation of kids who are living in fear, like the poor girl from Holland that says every day she wakes up afraid for her future, so much so that she had to sail to New York. All of this is based on theory, and not empirical evidence, or as some call it, science. Do you really want to be a punk driving around in a Prius?

Screw that, crank up the Harley, and get that Dodge Challenger if you want it. With the release of Harley-Davidson LiveWire quickly approaching, Electrek is in Brooklyn to take a first ride on the new electric motorcycle.

Read on to get all the dirt on this premium new electric bike. To put that in perspective, the largest battery offered by industry leader Zero Motorcycles is The iOS and Android apps include core functions such as turn-by-turn directions, ride planning, remote motorcycle systems monitoring, charge monitoring, dealer, and event locations, etc.

The app also transmits key vehicle health information and provides the owner with the reassurance of being able to remotely monitor the LiveWire security, including tamper alerts via the app and stolen-vehicle assistance.

Another previously unreported feature is that the LiveWire is hiding a USB-C charging port inside the front fairing just behind the headlight.

As to scaring children, on 13 December , young, frightened Greta, and let me say here that I am a grandfather with granddaughters who are not scared every day, because they have been taught from young to think for themselves, had this to say to the world, to wit:.

Do nothing, like you suggest, because the climate change has nothing with the recent increase in carbon dioxide and methane we caused. If IC engines are banned in 10 years just in time to beat the year window of catastrophe , who would deliver your falafel?

Actually, who would deliver anything at all, since there would be no trucking industry?? How does that happen? How about design? I believe we are attacking the wrong problems in entirely the wrong way. We used to call this stuff global warming, but when the temp stopped rising, we now call it climate change, as if the climate never changes on its own. The models, because computers are limited in how many variables they can handle, always a limitation of models of complex systems like the atmosphere, are therefore forced to make a lot of assumptions which are exactly that — assumptions.

The models assume that when carbon dioxide is put into the atmosphere, that it simply stays there, which is not at all accurate or true. The human body, for example, is made up of carbon to the extent that each of us is about 18 percent carbon by weight, so that if the average human weight is around pounds, there are about All of this is part of the carbon cycle, which is not at all accounted for in all these climate change models, of which there are some 65 or so different and competing ones, I believe, so which do you believe?

And the models assume that we will keep pouring carbon dioxide into the air at the same rate, which is not true, because every day, people are changing their habits and are getting away from fossil fuels, or minimizing their use of same, because the future as always belongs to the efficient.

And it is truly just plain stupid to think that we can go cold-turkey on fossil fuels in ten years without chaos ensuing. Many of the questions scientists still need to answer about the carbon cycle revolve around how it is changing.

How much extra carbon will melting permafrost put into the atmosphere, and how much will that amplify warming? They will help us gauge the impact we are having on the carbon cycle by releasing carbon into the atmosphere or finding ways to store it elsewhere.

They will show us how our changing climate is altering the carbon cycle, and how the changing carbon cycle is altering our climate. For us, the carbon cycle is the food we eat, the electricity in our homes, the gas in our cars, and the weather over our heads.

We are a part of the carbon cycle, and so our decisions about how we live ripple across the cycle. As each of us come to understand our role in the carbon cycle, the knowledge empowers us to control our personal impact and to understand the changes we are seeing in the world around us.

My point was, putting some serious resources in reducing the CO2 and methane exhaust in the atmosphere seems like a good plan. And I say this as a motorcycle rider. As far as Prius drivers?

At least they drive a vehicle that minimizes the pollution and carbon footprint. Good for them. Note: I would sell you some of my sense of humor, but it would probably be wasted anyhow. You are too serious. First of all, life is not static and without waiting to be told what to do by Greta Thunberg and AOC, people are planting trees, and putting up solar panels, and reducing their carbon footprints all the time. That is unless in that time, permanent and unprecedented changes in all aspects of industrialized society have taken place.

And please note that these calculations are depending on inventions that have not yet been invented at scale. Nor the aspect of equity, which is absolutely necessary to make the Paris Agreement work on a global scale. And these calculations are not opinions or wild guesses.

These projections are backed up by scientific facts, concluded by all nations through the IPCC. As an adult, as a grandfather, and as a graduate level engineer, quite frankly, Sorin, I think that young woman is quite out of her mind. You are preaching to the choir about nuclear. But putting resources in finding alternative to IC seems like a smart thing to do.

Not to mention quiet, non polluting and , well, fun. Note: I love Tesla too, but be real, where does it get its power from? A coal-burning plant probably…or a diesel generator? And lithium is an environmental disaster all on its own. The Bolivian Andes are being raped for lithium as we speak so-called sustainables always have a poison pill. The T may do well in a drag race, but the Daytona …not so much.

Robert Heinlein or Milton Friedman said it best. If we blanketed the US with enough wind and solar facilities to replace the 4 billion megawatt-hours of electricity Americans used in we would need batteries to store electricity for seven straight windless or sunless days.

They would require huge amounts of iron, copper, rare earth metals, concrete and other raw materials. All this free, renewable, sustainable, eco-friendly, ethical energy would require the biggest expansion in mining the world has ever seen.

Question is, when was the last time any environmentalist or Democrat politician supported opening a single US mine? We import minerals from China, Russia and numerous 3rd world countries that do not adhere to any of our labor, safety or environmental laws.

The minerals are dug out and processed by fathers, mothers and children under horrific, unsafe, inhumane conditions with nonexistent labor, wage, health, safety, and pollution standards.

They are real problems that defy simple solutions. In fact, some of these problems are insurmountable with present technology. What Democrats are talking about has nothing to do with stopping man made climate change.

To them, you spend money as a government so you can rake off enough graft to keep the soldiers happy, so you can maintain political power. And humans cannot control the climate, which is a combination of temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility, and wind. As for me, I went down in my basement and pyrolized some sequestered carbon like poor people in the country have been doing for centuries and millennia, and I was quite toasty!

For anyone interested in the science of what I am doing, the formula for the chain reaction is as follows:. As to the heat energy output, I am getting approximately So by utilizing science and the carbon cycle as I am doing, my carbon footprint is down around zero, and I am largely self-sustaining, which actually used to be an American trait shared by many.

Are you? Note: Interesting Soren, we are working on an article about an algae-based bio-reactor that captures carbon.

Well, I also have some sequestered carbon dioxide that I can gain energy from in my potato patch and my squash, etc. Check our NASA, Sorin — studies have shown that increased concentrations of carbon dioxide increase photosynthesis, spurring plant growth. A plant will not grow or thrive in environments with less than ppm in their atmosphere, and when modifying the growing environment to increase the yield of plants, a grower will increase their CO2 up to 2, ppm.

The global average atmospheric carbon dioxide in was And if you study some HVAC guidelines, you will find that , ppm of carbon dioxide is the typical level found in occupied spaces with good air exchange, and that is carbon dioxide caused by people breathing.

In the meantime, there are no VIABLE studies that predict carbon dioxide is going to cause the world to end in 10 or 12 years. As to the scientific community, Sorin, it is a diverse network of interacting scientists and objectivity is expected to be achieved by the scientific method. As to the scientific method, it is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century.

It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation. You say that scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study, and consensus implies general agreement, though not necessarily unanimity.

Since then, AIRS has amassed information about carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water vapor, methane and temperatures in the mid-troposphere see multimedia presentations. For carbon dioxide, AIRS measures and tracks its concentration and movement as it moves across the globe. Observation data is critical for scientists to validate their models or adjust them to better predict the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on the weather and climate.

The data have already refuted a long-held belief that carbon dioxide is evenly distributed and do so fairly quickly in the atmosphere once it rises from the ground, said Moustafa Chahine, the science team leader of the AIRS project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union AGU in San Francisco Tuesday.

AIRS data shows instead that carbon dioxide, which has seen its rate of increase accelerating from 1 part per million in to 2 parts per million today, would require about two to three years before it blends in, he said.

And by extension, that knowledge would be crucial in determining what humans must do to minimize their emissions or use technologies to capture and sequester their carbon dioxide pollution before it escapes into the atmosphere. I hope you will forgive me if I will take their word over yours. Sorin, this is America, not some communist country like Rumania, so you can believe anything and anyone you want, and it will trouble me not one single whit. We are talking about all the flaws in that model your scientists are touting, because Sorin, that model is flawed.

And as to electric cars, the Porsche Taykan is putting out some horsepower and can leave the retro-Dodge Challenger in its dust.

Before we get all lathered up over an all renewable, all electric future read some stats put out by Paul Dreissen, senior policy analyst for the Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow —.

Computer models certainly predict all kinds of catastrophes. But both the models and increasingly hysterical assertions of planetary doom are completely out of synch with reality. The second, even colder bucket of reality is that the wind and sun may be free, renewable, sustainable. But the technologies and raw materials required to harness this widely dispersed, intermittent, weather dependent energy to benefit humanity absolutely are not. Corn ethanol also requires vast quantities of water, pesticides, fertilizers, natural gas, gasoline and diesel, to produce and transport a fuel that drives up food prices, adversely affects food aid and nutrition in poor nations, damages small engines, and gets one-third fewer miles per gallon than gasoline.

Solar power. Generating the 3. Wind power. Mandated, subsidized wind energy also requires millions of acres for turbines and new transmission lines, and billions of tons of concrete, steel, copper, rare earth metals and fiberglass. Their light flicker and infrasonic noise impair human health. That would require a lot of extra wind turbines, as we are forced to go into lower and lower quality wind locations. Instead of the 58, turbines we have now, the United States would need some 14 million turbines, each one feet tall, each one capable of generating 1.

Assuming a barely sufficient 15 acres apiece, those monster turbines would require some million acres! Their bird-butchering blades would wipe out raptors, other birds and bats in vast regions of the USA. But experts say every turbine needs at least 50 acres of open airspace, and Fowler Ridge uses acres per turbine. That works out to million acres ten times Arizona — to 1, million acres ten times Texas or nearly the entire Lower 48 United States!

Eagles, hawks, falcons, vultures, geese and other high-flying birds and bats would virtually disappear from our skies. Insects and vermin would proliferate. Manufacturing those wind turbines would require something on the order of 4 billion tons of steel, copper and alloys for the towers and turbines; 8 billion tons of steel and concrete for the foundations; 4 million tons of rare earth metals for motors, magnets and other components; 1 billion tons of petroleum-based composites for the nacelle covers and turbine blades; and massive quantities of rock and gravel for millions of miles of access roads to the turbines.

All these materials must be mined, processed, smelted, manufactured into finished products, and shipped all over the world. They would require removing hundreds of billions of tons of earth and rock overburden — and crushing tens of billions of tons of ore — at hundreds of new mines and quarries. Every step in this entire process would require massive amounts of fossil fuels, because wind turbines and solar panels cannot operate earth moving and mining equipment — or produce consistently high enough heat to melt silica, iron, copper, rare earth or other materials.

Swedish climate change activist Greta Thunberg, 16, is testifying before Congress next week at the invitation of House Democrats. Thunberg will appear Sept. Thunberg is best known for founding an international movement called Fridays for Future, in which students skip school on Fridays to participate in demonstrations demanding action to combat climate change.

Last month she traveled across the Atlantic Ocean in an emissions-free solar-powered boat, instead of flying, to New York City ahead of her speech on Sept. Sometimes the world makes so little sense that the only thing to do is engage in civil disobedience — even in a country as attached to its rules and regulations as Sweden is.

Since the election, she has returned to school for four days a week; she now spends her Fridays on the steps of parliament. This is the little girl the Democrats have invited to appear before our Congress to tell our Congress what it is we American people have to do to please this troubled little girl with some serious issues, and I for one, am refusing to dance to the tune she wishes to call, which takes us back to the NEW YORKER, as follows, as to how Greta Thunberg became the leading voice in the world for climate change, to wit:.

It not only calls attention to climate policy, as she intended, but it also showcases the political potential of neurological difference. Thunberg developed her special interest in climate change when she was nine years old and in the third grade. Enzler MSc where we learn as follows with respect to carbon dioxide, to wit:. Svante Arrhenius was a Swedish scientist that was the first to claim in that fossil fuel combustion may eventually result in enhanced global warming.

What Arrhenius actually found was that the average surface temperature of the earth is about 15C because of the infrared absorption capacity of water vapor and carbon dioxide, which is called the natural greenhouse effect. At the same time ocean sediment research showed that there had been no less than 32 cold-warm cycles in the last 2. So ask yourself if you have children or grandchildren — why should you tolerate the Democrats lying to them and scaring them to score some cheap political points at their expense?

But, that is your problem, so knock yourself out. How are your grandchildren going to get around? To clarify my position. I think we should put massive resources into refining solar, wind, wave energy production, battery storage, electric vehicles, advanced nuclear reactors, hopefully fusion. This was the biggest offenders and funding the development of alternative technologies. Note: Why do wealthy white people enjoy hurting the poor so much? Who is the gas and oil tax really going to hurt?

But single moms, who are already stretched, what are they supposed to do? Sorin, one of the reasons I generally stay out of these discussions is because they are usually stupid, with hysteria on one side, and total denial of all reality on the other. And real science is not the possession of one person like Greta Thunberg — real science is available to everyone, so the science I rely on is as accessible to you as it is to me.

So that you might understand what an engineer is, versus a scientist, the practice of the profession of engineering is defined as performing professional services wherein the safeguarding of life, health and property is concerned, when such service or work requires the application of engineering principles and data.

Since engineers like myself are supposed to safeguard life, health and property, Sorin, we are not supposed to be running around like chickens with our heads cut off yelling the sky is falling, nor are we supposed to be gulled by the ravings of a frightened year old Swedish girl who wants us all to panic because she feels fear every day.

And engineering principles, Sorin, are not theories like this greenhouse gas model, which has many flaws due to the fact that there are too many variables for it to handle. Engineering principles are based on natural laws and are fundamental truths that serve as the foundation for a system of belief or behavior or for a chain of reasoning. And another engineering principle or natural law is that at standard temperature and pressure, the density of carbon dioxide is around 1.

And since I am an engineer, Sorin, who worked in the field of air pollution control yes, I am aware that the combustion products of burning gas are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, while the combustion products of burning coal include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide, while the combustion products of diesel are carbon dioxide and water vapor.

I am also aware that burning wood, or turf, or buffalo chips or any other organic matter also releases carbon dioxide into the air. Waste Awareness and Reduction Network, an environmental group critical of nuclear power. At some plants — those with tall, Three Mile Island-style cooling towers — a lot of the water travels up the tower and is lost to evaporation. Progress spokeswoman Julie Hahn said the Harris reactor, for example, sucks up 33 million gallons a day, with 17 million gallons lost to evaporation via its big cooling towers.

In the meantime, have yourself a wonderful day, and Sorin, keep in mind that the average human like yourself or Greta Thunberg or AOC exhales about 2. Carbon fiber is manufactured by refining oil to obtain acrylonitrile and then spinning this acrylonitrile and baking the spun yarn. Passionate, yes his arguments seem reasonable. And there are many in the middle. Not a big deal.

I was in Viet Nam in , and where I was, there were no motorized vehicles, at all, nor was there electricity, and yet those people were getting along fine, by their standards, living as they had for centuries, given that the history of Viet Nam goes back to B. And Rome, one of the truly great civilizations on earth began its history on April 21, BC, long before internal combustion engines and V-8 powered trucks to haul your boat around with, and they built many engineering wonders without the aid of motorized equipment.

Julius Caesar in Gaul and in his other campaigns was moving his legions around quite rapidly on foot over 2, years ago. What makes that unique is that these people were in possession of advanced metal working technology, and two-wheeled chariots. So by bothering to come out of our comfort zone to study a bit of history, we can plainly see that humans have gotten along just fine without the things we think are absolutely necessary today to sustain life, like the V-8 powered truck, and the big boat, etc.

When I was young, the old woman at the farm up the road where I worked was born after the civil war and had lived a good portion of her life without anything we consider essential to life today, and she was in her nineties when I knew her. So, nuclear power is hardly a new concept, and by this time, there are no mysteries about nuclear power left, so what exactly is it that we are going to pour these massive resources into, outside of graft and corruption?

Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat, and Joule heating affects the whole electric conductor, which means the farther away the source is, the greater the losses, and that heat produced goes into the atmosphere, because heat is energy.

And this has all been known now for several centuries, which is an indication of just how tedious these discussions have become today, where people are acting like we are just discovering what people have known for a long time already. James Prescott Joule first published in December , an abstract in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, suggesting that heat could be generated by an electrical current.

Joule immersed a length of wire in a fixed mass of water and measured the temperature rise due to a known current flowing through the wire for a 30 minute period.

By varying the current and the length of the wire he deduced that the heat produced was proportional to the square of the current multiplied by the electrical resistance of the immersed wire, which is high school physics today, or even grade school physics, which raises the existential question of how people in this country today have become so pitifully stupid and ignorant.

It is amazing how scared adults are of this poor little misguided girl with some serious psychological issues from Sweden who is the star of her own movie, which is a real statement about those in this country over 18 who are alleged to be adults. As far as Greta T, I could not care less about that stunt. Besides, it seems there are other nuclear plant designs that are possible, and some of them are pursued by small companies, but they seem to be poorly funded.

Note: Thanks Soren, we really appreciate all you bring to the table. Keep up the good work, your opinion is very important! Republicans, OTOH, have no problem with improving our nuclear power generation so you may be on the wrong side of the isle.

In addition, the claim that taxing the rich and giving it to the poor is the basis for socialism is, well, just plain wrong. The simplest definition of socialism is that the government owns the means of production and the distribution of goods in a society in which there is no private property. For instance I am for nuclear power. I like Warren for president but think her idea to ban fracking by executive order is moronic.

That being said, I am not for socialism. How will the Democrats fill all these gaps? Commuting — Every vehicle on the road powered by fossil fuels will be worthless. How will the poor and middle class be able to afford to replace their worthless vehicles?

Subsidies from the government? Trucking — Same thing, Every vehicle on the road powered by fossil fuels will be worthless. How will the truckers be able to afford to replace their worthless vehicles? And it they do, the cost to ship goes way up, leading to much higher costs for services and products. Infrastructure — How will cities be able to afford to replace all their police cars and fire engines?

Who will produce them? How will businesses, hospitals, and power companies afford to retrofit all their businesses? Airlines — Done………………….. Farming — All farm equipment powered by fossil fuels will be obsolete and worthless.

They will not have enough money to replace the equipment and lithium powered equipment will be expensive and scarce. Gonna be back to 40 acres and a mule. Banking — Think about all those defaulted internal combustion car loans. Vacations — People will not be able to afford to travel.

Again, the middles class, NOT the elites. National Defense — The space and defense industries will be destroyed. There will be no way to defend ourselves from China, Russia, Iran and other countries which will not give up their source of income from fossil fuels.

The greatest existential threat to our freedom, prosperity and survival as a great country are journalists, politicians, educators and some regular folks who seem to have no idea of the destruction they are proposing. OK, what specific proposals are you referring to? So the entire premise of your commend seems flawed. Now Warren also say some stupid things, like give up nuclear energy which i think is moronic, but you resistance Ray to ANY change that would result in less pollution and burning fossil fuels is disarming.

You know, what is ironic is that before Trump, before all of this, i was leaning towards the Republican party ideology. While the candidates appeared in back-to-back interviews, it was a former presidential hopeful, Gov. Jay Inslee of Washington, who dominated the event in an unusual way.

Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont, who has not explicitly taken up Mr. With new observations, the scientists confirmed experimentally what existing climate models had anticipated theoretically. That information was combined with global observations of shifts in temperature, allowing researchers to build a comprehensive picture of the interplay between water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other atmosphere-warming gases.

AIRS is the first instrument to distinguish differences in the amount of water vapor at all altitudes within the troposphere. Using data from AIRS, the team observed how atmospheric water vapor reacted to shifts in surface temperatures between and By determining how humidity changed with surface temperature, the team could compute the average global strength of the water vapor feedback. Focus your attention on that last sentence, people, and really contemplate what it means in terms of what we are being told by the Democrats concerning the role carbon dioxide itself plays, which is a secondary role, not a primary role as the Democrats would have us believe, which takes us back to that paper, as follows:.

And for the record, in , which is 44 years ago now, I had all the records of research I was doing into the amount of water vapor being put into the atmosphere by nuclear generating facility cooling towers confiscated and destroyed because the New York State Power Pool as it was then known did not want that research published, so they had it covered up, instead.

And I am not going to endorse a federal government program that is based on fraud, deception and outright lies. As to the idea that I want no advancement, that is just insulting. As a conservative I believe in constant improvement of the human condition, in a controlled, non-chaotic fashion.

It seems wise to me to keep whatever fossil fuels we have in the country for ourselves, so the export ban seems wise. But the bill is flawed in my opinion in regards to the targets of clean energy production.

The bottom line is, Democrats are not a unified block. So some democrats introduced this, so what. Abortion must be legal, safe and rare. We must protect our voting system from foreign influence but Voter ID laws are racist. If you like your doctor, you can keep your doctor. It is not just our energy sector, Mr. I lived through the northeast blackout of , which was a significant disruption in the supply of electricity on Tuesday, November 9, , affecting parts of Ontario in Canada and Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and Vermont in the United States, and as far as we could tell from inside the affected zone, the world had come to an end.

I was going to get gas that evening, and was just about out when the power went out, so that was it for me. Unless you are on top of a hill, and where you want to go is down, a car without gas is worthless. Luckily, a friend lived near-by, so I was able to find a place to wait out whatever was happening, and since everything was off, nobody knew. Getting back to the blackout of , over 30 million people and 80, square miles , km2 were left without electricity for up to 13 hours.

What I was saying is that the great black-out is a preview of the carbon-free world the Democrats are going to force on us in their hysteria over supposed global warming due to carbon dioxide, which theory goes back to the s and Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier 21 March — 16 May , the French mathematician and physicist who is also generally credited with the discovery of the greenhouse effect.

In the s Fourier calculated that an object the size of the Earth, and at its distance from the Sun, should be considerably colder than the planet actually is if warmed by only the effects of incoming solar radiation. He examined various possible sources of the additional observed heat in articles published in and And that takes us forward in time from Fourier to Svante August Arrhenius 19 February — 2 October , a Swedish scientist who was originally a physicist, but often is referred to as a chemist, as he was one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry, a course I took in my training to become an engineer.

Arrhenius wanted to determine whether greenhouse gases could contribute to the explanation of the temperature variation between glacial and inter-glacial periods.

In his calculation Arrhenius included the feedback from changes in water vapor as well as latitudinal effects, but he omitted clouds, convection of heat upward in the atmosphere, and other essential factors.

His work is currently seen less as an accurate quantification of global warming than as the first demonstration that increases in atmospheric CO2 will cause global warming, everything else being equal. A simple question: should public policy in the United States of America that affects the lives of all citizens in this country be based on lies, fraud and deception? I think policy should be based on science and common sense. Update the grid to reduce power losses and better handle events 4.

I have a simple question for you. What do you think the public policy should be on the topic of energy production, transportation, etc? Do we need to come together as a nation and change anything or just carry on what we do now? Otten trying to hold you back before you pummel me and knock me to the floor so you can stomp me a bit before kicking me the rest of the way out the door.

How come you think we are doing nothing, perhaps because the rich set down in Cape Charles with all their big boats and such are doing nothing, because to them, ostentation is what matters? We people in America who live in places where it gets down below zero in the winter have known about insulation for longer than you have been alive, so that we can stay alive, unlike you people down there who can go out in your bathing suit all year round to do your surfing. This code shall regulate the design and construction of buildings for the effective use and conservation of energy over the useful life of each building.

This code is intended to provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve this objective. This code is not intended to abridge safety, health or environmental requirements contained in other applicable codes or ordinances.

And then you say to update the grid to reduce power losses and better handle events, as if that is not an on-going process by the power companies, who are publicly traded companies always looking to maximize return on investment. You reduce Joule Heating losses by reducing resistance, and by having the source of power as close to the user as possible which is why Alcoa has its aluminum plants, which use a lot of energy, in northern New York by the St.

Lawrence River. Europe and China, according to new analyses by the energy research firm from Wood Mackenzie. Wood Mac projected that that this rate of adoption of electric vehicles would displace 5. If the current pace of reducing emissions of carbon dioxide, a major cause of global warming produced by fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal, the global demand for oil would peak in Even in an extreme scenario, fossil fuels will still make up 77 percent of global energy demand through , according to Wood Mackenzie.

The could mean lower profit margins — even losses — on motor gasoline for refineries along the Gulf and East coasts, the U. Energy Department said in a note Wednesday. In the short-term energy outlook released earlier this month, the Energy Department estimated that U.

For the first three weeks of November, estimated monthly gasoline consumption averaged about 9. For the record, collaborative, multinational physics projects in this area include the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER joint fusion experiment in France, which broke ground for its first support structures in — with the first experiments on its fusion machine, or tokamak, expected to begin in To sum up, fusion reactors face some unique problems: a lack of a natural fuel supply tritium , and large and irreducible electrical energy drains to offset.

Because 80 percent of the energy in any reactor fueled by deuterium and tritium appears in the form of neutron streams, it is inescapable that such reactors share many of the drawbacks of fission reactors — including the production of large masses of radioactive waste and serious radiation damage to reactor components.

These problems are endemic to any type of fusion reactor fueled with deuterium-tritium, so abandoning tokamaks for some other confinement concept can provide no relief. If reactors can be made to operate using only deuterium fuel, then the tritium replenishment issue vanishes and neutron radiation damage is alleviated.

But the other drawbacks remain — and reactors requiring only deuterium fueling will have greatly enhanced nuclear weapons proliferation potential. A fusion reactor is a thermal power plant that would place immense demands on water resources for the secondary cooling loop that generates steam, as well as for removing heat from other reactor subsystems such as cryogenic refrigerators and pumps.

In fact, a fusion reactor would have the lowest water efficiency of any type of thermal power plant, whether fossil or nuclear. With drought conditions intensifying in sundry regions of the world, many countries could not physically sustain large fusion reactors. Numerous alternative coolants for the primary heat-removal loop have been studied for both fission and fusion reactors, and one-meter thick liquid lithium walls may be essential for inertial confinement fusion systems to withstand the impulse loading.

This circumstance indicates that implementing any substitute for water coolant such as helium or liquid metal will be impractical in magnetic confinement fusion systems. Fusion reactor operation will require personnel whose expertise has previously been required only for work in fission plants — such as security experts for monitoring safeguard issues and specialty workers to dispose of radioactive waste.

Fission reactors in the United States typically require at least permanent employees over four weekly shifts, and fusion reactors will require closer to 1, In contrast, only a handful of people are required to operate hydroelectric plants, natural-gas burning plants, wind turbines, solar power plants, and other power sources. Another intractable operating expense is the to megawatts of parasitic electric power consumed continuously by on-site supporting facilities that must be purchased from the regional grid when the fusion source is not operating.

Multiple recurring expenses include the replacement of radiation-damaged and plasma-eroded components in magnetic confinement fusion, and the fabrication of millions of fuel capsules for each inertial confinement fusion reactor annually. As to what public policy should be, I would go back to , and pp. The oil pools of California are characterized by high gas pressure, and therefore the flush output of wells is high. The quality of the oil varies from light to heavy in different pools, some being of exceptionally high quality, but for the province as a whole asphaltic oils predominate.

In spite of low prices for such oils the great flush production long ago made wells highly profitable and led to veritable orgies of drilling. Competition for the oil caused too close drilling and resulted in production so great that markets were unable to absorb the output. Oil interests have finally become convinced of the truth long agitated by economists and geologists, that unrestricted drilling is uneconomical and that the rapid reduction of gas pressure which it entails lessens the amount of oil which ultimately be obtained from the area.

In recognition of this, California has a state conservation law, the intent of which is to prevent the waste of natural gas and thereby not only conserve it for industrial use, but, through maintained gas pressure, increase the amount of petroleum which may ultimately be recovered from the producing sands of the area.

Paul, you spent a lot of energy in writing that long reply, so I made an effort to read it. You seem to have difficulty in writing concisely, so I will attempt to summarize your points :. And again, Sorin, that is another value judgment, and while you might see it that way, to me, as a compassionate grandfather, I see her as a very troubled youth who is a victim of her parents and her society. Thunberg says she first heard about climate change in , when she was 8 years old, and could not understand why so little was being done about it.

Three years later she became depressed and lethargic, stopped talking and eating, and was eventually diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, obsessive—compulsive disorder OCD , and selective mutism. That poor little girl is a mess, and we should be feeling real sorry for her victimhood instead of condemning the poor damaged girl as the devil incarnate and calumniating against her like that when it is quite clear the girl is in need of some good psychiatric help, instead, which she apparently does not have access to in Sweden, poor thing.

That is Greta speaking, Sorin — does she sound like the Devil incarnate there, or just a confused little girl? Asked when she became so passionate about climate change, Thunberg says it started before she was 10 years old, during a school lesson that, as she recalls, made the entire class very sad.

And it is not happening all around the world, but nobody in the media which is exploiting this little girl has the courage to tell this little girl she is wrong, and that is what is wrong, Sorin — they let this little girl stay scared so they can sell advertising, which is obscene. On a recent class trip to a museum exhibit on climate change, for example, she noticed that some figures in the show — statistics on the carbon footprint of meat production, for example — were wrong.

She needs you to give her a good hug, Sorin, not have you calling her the devil incarnate, which takes us to your next point,. And of course the activities of humans affect the climate, which is the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.

In the s, ExxonMobil had internal science that not only definitively proved that climate change was real, but they themselves, the oil company, invested in modelling to see how bad it was going to be. Some of their models were so sophisticated that, back in the 70s, they were predicting our weather patterns as far out as — and many of them were accurate. So what they did, starting the year I was born, around , was to start funding a lot of media and lobbying campaigns.

But I think because of our advocacy and our movement, those numbers have been dropping precipitously in just the last few years. And in the last year especially, with our push for a Green New Deal, connecting everything that is happening to climate change. People who cover increasingly worse hurricanes as though they are accidents, or just things that happen — now, every time a storm comes, we talk about climate change. Exxon was aware of climate change, as early as , 11 years before it became a public issue, according to a recent investigation from InsideClimate News.

In in America, there should have been no one under the age of 15 who were not aware of climate change, since we were modeling climate change with the same science which still exists today, in high school back in But obviously, you can be real stupid, ignorant and uninformed and still be a feature writer for Scientific American as is the case here with this Shannon Hall, who is advertised as being an award-winning freelance science journalist based in the Rocky Mountains who specializes in writing about astronomy, geology and the environment, from an obviously biased perspective.

Now, I am over 70, and in , I was inducted into Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Honor Society, which is the international honor society of science and engineering. Scientists and engineers, whose research spans the disciplines of science and technology, comprise the membership of the Society.

Sigma Xi was founded in to honor excellence in scientific investigation and encourage a sense of companionship and cooperation among researchers in all fields of science and engineering.

Since I already mentioned those points elsewhere I am not going to repeat those here. And Ray, Paul and whoever else feels like it, I am renewing my offer to buy everyone some beers and discuss this in person. I have carpal syndrome and typing a lot hurts my hands.

Besides, I much rather interact with people in person then though the anonymity of internet. It is absurd, Sorin Varzaru, at least from an engineering point of view employing thermodynamics and heat and mass transfer, if you have any of your own experts in those areas you want to bring into the conversation, to say that the heat energy produced by human activity has no impact whatsoever on the weather, and hence, the climate.

As to the Piltdown Man, it was a paleoanthropological hoax in which bone fragments were presented as the fossilised remains of a previously unknown early human.

An extensive scientific review in established that amateur archaeologist Charles Dawson was its likely perpetrator. Smith Woodward reconstructed the skull fragments and hypothesised that they belonged to a human ancestor from , years ago.

The questionable significance of the assemblage remained the subject of considerable controversy until it was conclusively exposed in as a forgery. It was found to have consisted of the altered mandible and some teeth of an orangutan deliberately combined with the cranium of a fully developed, though small-brained, modern human.

The Piltdown hoax is prominent for two reasons: the attention it generated around the subject of human evolution, and the length of time, 41 years, that elapsed from its alleged initial discovery to its definitive exposure as a composite forgery. And thank you to the Cape Charles Mirror once again for hosting this discussion, which lets an old disabled, certified poor person like myself have as equal access as do the well-to-do yacht owners who proliferate in the balmy clime of Cape Charles, Virginia yes, I drove through one time with my windows down just to experience it first-hand, and I thought it was lovely, far better in fact than even San Diego or Burbank, California, or Marseilles, France, for that matter , and to Mr.

As can be seen, that was entirely one-sided, with no input from those of us who are not in favor of the Green New Deal for legitimate reasons the Democrats are keeping out of the record. We know the cause. Burning fossil fuels and destroying tropical forests are driving the climate crisis.

Which raises the existential question of why are the Democrats bringing this girl over from Sweden to try and turn our children and grandchildren against us by accusing us of stealing their futures because we are all a bunch of self-centered gluttons and wastrels, a characterization I frankly resent and find extremely insulting as an American citizen, which has me standing up in here to protest this Swedish trouble-maker appearing before our Co9ngress without equal time for rebuttal being offered on behalf of the American people themselves, who are quite obviously being left out of the discussion by the Democrats.

Been there and done that, Sorin, and I can guarantee you that that conversation, if it can be called that, goes nowhere fast, just as it usually does when discussed by people on the internet. This is about the best I have seen, since no screaming has started yet in here, and you are doing a good job of being objective and considering what has been offered so far.

We are no longer at the point of preventing [climate disaster] from happening entirely — we are now at the point of minimising the damage. Is that something that you could define, or find a definition of for us, because what the term is supposed to mean eludes me, who in over 70 years of life now, has been in some harsh environments, both hot and cold and wet. You would think with all those farting cows that AOC wants to ban, or equip with carbon-capture technology, that there would have been enough extra co2 in the air out there to keep it tropical.

And then, on the other side of the ledger, on May 31, , we had the Great Johnstown Flood, which occurred after the catastrophic failure of the South Fork Dam, located on the south fork of the Little Conemaugh River in Pennsylvania, which was caused by excessive rainfall,.

And look at the dates there, Sorin, that cold winter and that excessive rainfall all happened within a few years of each other. The Little Ice Age has been conventionally defined as a period extending from the 16th to the 19th centuries, although some experts prefer an alternative timespan from about to about As to this discussion on this climate disaster which is going to deprive Greta Thunberg of her future, which she wants guaranteed to her, as socialists do with them, it is always the responsibility of someone to provide for them which is how that system works, breeding weakness in society as it goes , the NASA Earth Observatory notes three particularly cold intervals: one beginning about , another about , and the last in , all separated by intervals of slight warming.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report considered the timing and areas affected by the Little Ice Age suggested largely independent regional climate changes rather than a globally synchronous increased glaciation. And thanks once again to the Cape Charles Mirror for making this discussion possible in the first place. Actually, sure, I do. The problem of the evolution of the Universe has always excited the profound interest of thinking men.

As to those times which spawned the Arrhenius Equation, the author himself stated thusly, to wit:. The theses of Mayer and of Helmholtz, on the manner in which the Sun replenishes its losses of heat, have had to be abandoned.

My explanation is based upon chemical reactions in the interior of the Sun in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. Yes, people, back then, and it was still being said when I was young, the operative theory that Arrhenius debunked was that indeed them world was going to end, and all life, on it, which includes you and me, and AOC and poor little Greta, because like your car on a trip, whether IC or an all-electric Tesla, which are quite fast, each day the sun shone down on earth used up some of its energy, so that it was going to run out of gas, and it would blink out, and doom for all of us, would follow!

This is not about climate change this is about political power. Who gets to tell everyone what they can and cannot do. Really sick of people buying into the lie. The issue is that reducing our dependence of burning stuff for energy needs to come from systemic changes, individuals have little power to make a difference. Were some Jungian to come along to give me a word association quiz, and was to ask me what words come to mind when I hear the words AOC and Greta Thunberg, my answer would be as follows:.

Clearly shows an increase in CO2. Harmless right? You know mixes with all that water vapor up there in the atmosphere. It creates carbonic acid, which reacts with carbonate ions and forms bicarbonate. Hence, excessive CO2 is leading to the acidification of our oceans and waterways. So the coral reefs are dying, the chemistry of the ocean is changing. But suffice to say that right now, tokenny, the PH of the ocean is about 8. And tokenny, did you know that one tree alone, and I have ten acres of them for this exact reason, can sequester a TON of CO2?

So thank me for thinking of you and the oceans by not getting greedy and cutting them all down to make a quick killing in the market so I too could own a mega-mansion right on the shore of some barrier island. And tokenny, ALL the scientists agree that when it comes to a greenhouse gas, CO2 is puny when compared to water vapor.

Just saying, and I hope that helps you to stop hyperventilating in your hysteria that the world is ending, because hyperventilating pours forth copious amounts of CO2 compared to a calm person such as myself. Jeeze, Paul you sure seem to be a duck out of the water here.

Printing press - Wikipedia

Numerous inventors in Europe and the U. This well-engineered device looked rather like a pincushion. Nietzsche's mother and sister once gave him one for Christmas.

He hated it. This means that the typist confusingly called a "typewriter" herself in the early days has to lift up the carriage to see her work. Another example of an understroke typebar machine is the Caligraph of , the second typewriter to appear on the American market. The Smith Premier is another example of a full-keyboard understroke typewriter which was very popular in its day.

Case in point: the ingenious Hammond , introduced in The Hammond came on the scene with its own keyboard, the two-row, curved "Ideal" keyboard -- although Universal Hammonds were also soon made available.

The Hammond prints from a type shuttle -- a C-shaped piece of vulcanized rubber. The shuttle can easily be exchanged when you want to use a different typeface. There is no cylindrical platen as on typebar typewriters; the paper is hit against the shuttle by a hammer. Other machines typing from a single type element rather than typebars included the gorgeous Crandall The effort to create a visible rather than "blind" machine led to many ingenious ways of getting the typebars to the platen. Examples of early visible writers include the Williams and the Oliver.

The Daugherty Visible of was the first frontstroke typewriter to go into production: the typebars rest below the platen and hit the front of it. With the Underwood of , this style of typewriter began to gain ascendancy. By the s, virtually all typewriters were "look-alikes": frontstroke, QWERTY, typebar machines printing through a ribbon, using one shift key and four banks of keys.

Some diehards lingered on. The huge Burroughs Moon-Hopkins typewriter and accounting machine was a blind writer that was manufactured, amazingly enough, until the late s. Let's return for a moment to the 19th century. There were many efforts to produce cheaper typewriters.

Obviously, these were not heavy-duty office machines; they were meant for people of limited means who needed to do some occasional typing. Index typewriters survived into the 20th century as children's toys; one commonly found example is the "Dial" typewriter made by Marx Toys in the s and 30s. To get some different perspectives, try looking through my collection list or my wish list. For further reading, check out the typewriter-collecting resources.

Who invented the fist workable typer