But it is being pressured by conservative religious groups toward abstinence-only programs and away from vulnerable groups like prostitutes, homosexuals and drug addicts. Included in the U. Some officials are worried that the fund will adopt U. Epidemiology : history : arose from SIV and moved into humans around by butchering chimpanzees Pan spp. Apes are traditionally hunted in Africa and are offered for sale in open-air meat markets.
Different regions of gp interact with CD4 and chemokine receptors found on the surface of target cells. Researchers are looking at the benefits of giving babies a drug such as nevirapine once a day for the first 6 months while they're breastfeeding, then having positove early weaning. We recognize the fine work on HIV and AIDS currently being carried out by anthropologists, cultural critics, sociologists and jou addressing, among other questions, the biopolitical dimensions of national and global responses to HIV for example Positvie, We close with a note of thanks. The HIV diagnosis rate even fell by 9. Kippax, S. In some provinces, including Anhui, Jeeves are you hiv positive and Shandong, the disease took off in the early s when poor farmers began selling their blood plasma. The model of success for those states is perhaps Tamil Shoes that lace up ankles, where the epidemic spawned dozens of NGOs that conduct education programmes and provide counselling and support. Women Jeeves are you hiv positive information, including how to use a female condom to protect themselves. A link between reactivity to foreign histocompatibility ypu and resistance to infection with simian immunodeficiency virus SIV was first observed in the early s.
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Auto Accessories Online Good quality accessories at affordable prices Hula leis. What is a Stomach Ulcer? Here's the knowledge you need to posltive the disease. She goes on to say that 3 of the band were in the Jeeves are you hiv positive positioning but yoou of the bands were not. You got the science guys. The IgM Western Blot test result is only meaningful during the first four weeks of Jeeves are you hiv positive. Buy online with free express shipping, pick-up in store, or get same day delivery in select markets. Our certified HIV testers can help you decide what is best for you. When the infection leads to an ulcer, symptoms may include abdominal painespecially when your stomach is empty at night or a few hours after meals. They may also be transferred from feces to the mouth. The symptoms vary from person to person, but there are some common symptoms that appear within a month or.
The impetus for this special issue on HIV came from a discussion a few years ago during which we established a shared interest in a revival of the sort of scholarly innovation that characterized the early years of the HIV epidemic.
- HIV attacks the immune system, which leaves the body unprotected from other infections.
- These bacteria can change the environment around them and reduce its acidity so they can survive.
- So I get a call from my primary care physician who admitted to me on Friday that she didn't know anything about Lyme Disease except that once you test positive you always test positive.
But it is being pressured by conservative religious groups toward abstinence-only programs and away from vulnerable groups like prostitutes, homosexuals and drug addicts. Included in the U. Some officials are worried that the fund will adopt U. Epidemiology : history : arose from SIV and moved into humans around by butchering chimpanzees Pan spp.
Apes are traditionally hunted in Africa and are offered for sale in open-air meat markets. The bloody carcasses are regularly covered with blood-feeding flies, amongst them possibly the stable or biting house fly Stomoxys calcitrans , a cosmopolitically occurring biting fly. This fly is the effective vector for the retrovirus causing equine infectious anemia. According to laboratory experiments, the infectivity of ingested HIV is not reduced in the regurgitates of this fly.
Even early in the epidemic the viruses in different cities were distinct from one another. This supports another popular theory: that HIV may have hitched a ride with tourists arriving from Haiti ref epidemic in near Lake Victoria Kinshasa, Zaire retrospectively recognized as having struck in the late s first reported in : this is compatible with HIV's roughly year incubation period.
It was discovered by an epidemiological research that showed increase in sales of pentamidine chlorhydrate in New York and San Francisco districts : the drug was used to treat opportunistic Pneumocystis carinii infections see below.
They are faithful but the husband is not faithful. Women need information, including how to use a female condom to protect themselves. An estimated 10 million people will carry the virus by unless effective action is taken India : 5. According to the CIA, the number of cases in India could top 20 million by Intravenous drug use accounts for only 2. The earliest cases appeared in high-risk groups: among the country's 3 million sex workers or the 5 million truckers who haul the virus up and down the highways.
But even in the United States there are an estimated 40, new cases each year. So do you believe that Indian number? Of course not, that would be ridiculous. But the statistics are sobering. Over the next 5 years, it plans to expand its voluntary testing sites to 24, and increase the number of people on antiretroviral therapy from an estimated 8, to , In Mumbai, the bustling metropolis on India's west coast, there are nearly , sex workers. Volunteers from non-governmental organizations NGOs walk through the streets of Kamathipura, the red-light district, handing out condoms and leaflets.
But in the southern states, where prevalence is highest, there are no red-light districts to canvass. Instead, sex workers — many of whom are married women — work out of their homes, hotels or on the highways, earning themselves the nickname 'highway queens'.
Some towns, such as Peddapuram and Amalapuram in the state of Andhra Pradesh, are like one big red-light district. Experience has shown that the best way to reach these unconventional sex workers is through their peers. There are , villages in India, many of them with bad roads, no running water and no medical care.
Compounded by ignorance and illiteracy, myriad myths about AIDS have taken root: that eating chicken and brinjal aubergine is harmful, for example, or that the virus can be transmitted by mosquito bites.
Some largely rural states such as Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have all the ingredients for a massive epidemic — illiteracy, poverty, migrant labour and sex traffic — but have so far received little attention either from the government or from donor agencies. The model of success for those states is perhaps Tamil Nadu, where the epidemic spawned dozens of NGOs that conduct education programmes and provide counselling and support.
As a result, it is the only state where prevalence has dropped — from 1. Truckers go home only once every few months.
On the road, they have multiple sexual partners and often abuse drugs and alcohol. Many believe that if they don't have sex they will build up garmi, a Hindi word meaning heat, and will go blind. In recent years, they've become accustomed to being chased by volunteers with flipcharts and penis models in their pockets. Selvaraj works with the HOPE Foundation, which has counsellors and doctors at several stops along a km stretch on the highway.
But the message has not entirely got through. Believing that AIDS can only be transmitted by women, many truckers now have sex with 'cleaners', the young boys who travel with them. These truckers have ample access to condoms, but many use the condoms to plug pipes in the trucks. In the mids, the Chinese government established a system of centres to screen donated blood and its products for HIV.
But the low cost and ready availability of unregulated rural samples kept demand high, and contaminated blood continued to slip through the net. In some provinces, including Anhui, Henan and Shandong, the disease took off in the early s when poor farmers began selling their blood plasma. China passed a law in August to make it illegal to buy and sell blood in an effort to stem the country's growing AIDS epidemic, the first time the disease has been targeted in a law. Officialsof relevant United Nations organizations warned that the number could hit 10 million if the epidemic goes unchecked.
As part of the measures to curb the disease, China has made AIDS prevention a compulsory course of schools ranging from junior high schools to colleges. China also launched pilot clinics last year to provide methadone maintenance therapy to intravenous drug users and programs to promote the use of condoms at hotels, universities and nightclubs. Shanxi Province in North China will conduct HIV testing among people who have sold blood since during the first 4 months of A senior official at the department said that some people infected with the HIV virus have yet to be traced after the blood-sale scandal.
The department also requested local health bureaus to conduct antibody testing on the spouses and children of previous blood sellers who were found HIV positive and to offer timely anti-retroviral treatment to the patients.
Lessons can be learned from successes in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. But of 1. As a result, the number of new people testing positive for HIV in the country fell from , in to 21, this year. In , when infection was at its peak, billboards, radio shows and concerts shouted a coordinated anti-HIV message. But similar strategies in other African countries did little to lower the prevalence of HIV. The difference is that in Uganda people became engaged with the epidemic at the community level : local care groups, religious movements, non-governmental organisations and care networks all spread the message.
Families, friends and neighbours began talking about HIV prevention and care, and sexually transmitted diseases stopped being a taboo topic. The previous estimate from showed that between , and , people had the AIDS virus. The jump reflects the role of medicines that have allowed people infected with the virus to live longer.
All of those infected with non-B subtypes were African immigrants attending health clinics in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Of the non-African HIVinfected patients, 25 were successfully subtyped and all were infected with subtype B.
Since their estimates are based solely on patients from health care facilities, they probably missed recent immigrants with HIV infection. Previous estimates -- as high as 1. For example, the CDC estimated in that between 1 million and 1. In , that was revised to , to 1.
The CDC also warned those demographics may soon change because heterosexual blacks, women and others infected after having high-risk sex such as with someone with HIV, an injection-drug user or a man who has sex with other men now account for a larger proportion of those living with HIV than those who are living with full-blown AIDS.
The HIV diagnosis rate even fell by 9. In absolute numbers, Latin America's largest country suffers from a high rate of HIV infection, with , registered cases of HIV, and estimates of up to , total cases. However, recent outbreaks of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in major cities around the country offer a hint that new infections may be as high as 60, cases a year mortality : 3.
Biological phenotype may be classified according to.. They are characterized by amino acid substitutions in codons 11? Presence of DC-SIGN-specific antibody also inhibit the capture of infectious virus by migratory cells, albeit to a lesser extent, indicating an important but not exclusive role for this receptor in virus capture and transmission.
By targeting HIV-1 directly with neutralizing gpspecific antibodies and a CD4-Ig fusion protein, both localized infection of cervical tissue and transfer of infectious virus by migratory cells are inhibited ref.
Different regions of gp interact with CD4 and chemokine receptors found on the surface of target cells. This region is involved in the binding of gp to chemokine receptors, triggering subsequent conformational changes in gp and gp Because this region forms or is exposed after binding of gp to CD4, it is known as the " CD4-induced epitope ". V2 loop : a highly variable region that is proximal to the CD4bd and is part of the bridging sheet. The V2 loop together with the V1 loop seems to shield partially the CD4bd, the bridging sheet and part of the V3 loop until conformational changes in gp are induced by CD4.
V3 loop : a semi-conserved region of gp that is structurally constrained by its requisite participation in virus infectivity. The V3 loop interacts with chemokine receptors on the sruface of target cells. In primary immature DCs, internalized virus particles are rapidly degraded in and endo-lysosomal compartment.
MHC class-I-restricted peptides are derived from a small number of virions that enter the cytosol after membrane fusion and are degraded by the proteasome, rather than from the majority of virions that are degraded in the endo-lysosomal compartment. Alternatively, HIV-1 could replicate in DCs at low levels, so that progeny virions rather than captured virions could be transmitted to T cells ref.
This region is inserted into the membrane of the target cell, resulting in fusion of virus and cell membranes Virions of wild-type HIV-1 and a mutant SIV had 14 and 73 spikes per particle, respectively, with some clustering of HIV-1 spikes. The transmembrane glycoprotein 'stalk' of each trimer is composed of 3 independent legs that project obliquely from the trimer head, tripod-like. Reconciling available atomic structures with the 3D whole spike density map yields insights into the orientation of Env spike structural elements and possible structural bases of their functions ref.
It intreracts with endophilin 1 and 2 cytosolic proteins converting lysophosphatidic acid by addition of the fatty acid arachidonate into phosphatidic acid, involved in the formation of endocytic vesicles , which remain as minor components of virions : also a -adaptin becomes included in the virion.
Alterations in protection upon maturation provide evidence for the maturation-induced formation of an interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains in half of the capsid molecules, indicating that only half of the capsid protein is assembled into the conical core ref. HIV-1 preferentially integrates into transcribed regions. Then Nef triggers CD4 endocytosis preventing overinfection and signal tranduction. It interacts with the N3 subunit impairing binding of PA28 but not of the 19S regulator of the 26S proteasome.
One action of Nef is to down-regulate surface MHC I molecules, helping infected cells to evade immunity. Nef also down-regulates the macrophage-expressed MHC-Ib protein HFE, which regulates iron homeostasis and is mutated in the iron-overloading disorder hemochromatosis. This activity requires a Src-kinase-binding proline-rich domain of Nef and a conserved tyrosine-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail of HFE. HIV-1 infection of ex vivo macrophages similarly down-regulates naturally expressed surface HFE in a Nef-dependent manner.
The effect of Nef expression on cellular iron was explored; iron and ferritin accumulation were increased in HIVinfected ex vivo macrophages expressing wild-type HFE, but this effect was lost with Nef-deleted HIV-1 or when infecting macrophages from hemochromatosis patients expressing mutated HFE. The proto-oncoprotein Hdm2 interacts with Tat and mediates its ubiquitination enhancing Tat-mediated transactivation via a non-proteolytic function.
No thank you. Your risk for infection partly depends on your environment and living conditions. Click here to view the event details, silent auction, and our event sponsors! Fortunately, current HIV medicines can control the virus so that people living with HIV can live a longer, healthier life and reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to others. Read this next.
Jeeves are you hiv positive. Cell Phones - Walmart.com
But the disease will constantly grow within you as the virus keeps spreading. Therefore, it is important for you to identify that you have HIV as early as possible. The symptoms vary from person to person, but there are some common symptoms that appear within a month or. How often should you get screened for osteoporosis? The osteoporosis testing frequency depends on multiple factors like age, gender, underlying medical conditions, medical and family history.
For example, if you are a woman in your 60s in the post-menopause phase with vitamin D deficiency. But one of the best ways to deal with diabetes is by conducting regular glucose tests.
Depending on the severity of your condition you might. Best Laptop Deals Check out the best deals on Laptops prestodeals. Auto Accessories Online Good quality accessories at affordable prices prestodeals. Refine Search. Cell Phones - Walmart. Top five causes of HIV jeevesknows.
Best Laptop Deals Check out the best deals on Laptops. Auto Accessories Online Good quality accessories at affordable prices. Cool Computer Accessories Shop variety computer accessories online. What are Comparison Shopping Engines? What is the Cost of Comparison Shopping Engines? Trending Images. There are non certified commercial labs such as igenex performing "lyme tests" that have no science based interpretation.
There is a two step process. Involving a DNA test and blot test. A negative on the blot test alone can be a positive. The presence of lyme antibodies is meaningless without additional evidence. Labs do not interpret tests. They are required to disclose that fact. You are very close to being victimnized by the lyme lobby.
Please proceed carefully. The fact that the Virginia Medical society opposed the bill should be a strong clue. Given the thousands of dollars left lying on the table, its about standards of care not some massive coverup.
I am feeling a little defensive right now. I asked if anyone had experienced this issue before. I can direct you to a couple of Lyme sites that will give you all the support you want, if you want to go that route. But you know the what they say"be careful what you ask for,you might get it". Yes there are people with similar experience.
One of the moderators of this site, and a wonderful yoing artist. Both pursued lyme treatment despite dubiois evidence. Unfortunatly they are both dead. Liver toxicity from ABX. There is no such thing as parially positive. The bands on a western blot are used to find hundreds of diseases.
Band 23 is associated with a number of diseases. I also felt like I came for support but then felt lectured! I am now very thankful it caused me to look at this all in a different light.
I think I have a fraud for a doctor who wanted me to have lyme so he could treat me. I too have symptoms, but luckily I feel better before getting the treatment he claimed would make me worse before better. I only had one band positive on the lyme test and I didn't like how pushy he was about his diagnosis. Ok Heather,if that is what you want to hear, there it is. No thank you. I am looking into seeing a Rheumatologist. That is what I wanted. And not to be warned about getting caught up in the legality of it all because I really have no interest or energy to do so.
I wanted to hear from other people with Lyme Disease who had gone through similar issues when first diagnosed. Instead I feel like you and tj1 made talked to me like I am a naive child. I am an adult who deserves to be treated with respect. I am scared. I have never been in this situation before.
My boyfriend is battling throat cancer and my grandmother is dying. This is me being real about where and who I am right now.
The way I was responded to was as if I was being lectured. The name of this page is lymediseasesupportnetwork. I figured empathy and support would be a given. A lecture is not always the answer. I am a counselor who works with at-risk kids with mental health diagnoses in the middle school setting. You're going to to see a Rheumatologist. Smart move.
Yes, I am also confused about the attitude on this page. I too had been diagnosed with Lyme and was looking for support in receiving that diagnosis. Now these people on this website have convinced me my doctor may be unscrupulous and I am grateful for the warning signals and will go with my gut and make sure of things before I proceed.
I didn't think it would be so hostile on one side or the other. Can't there be something in the middle???? Especially since the testing is not perfect? I definitely have something wrong with me. I don't want it to be Lyme or any disease! I just wanted some hormones. I agree being talked down to isn't good. Just because you all are educated in this subject does not mean the rest of us are.
You are talking to two guys dealing with lyme, not other counselors. These guys took time to share what they know. Wonder how they or anyone else will feel after hearing you didn't like the way they answered.
I'm not thinking folks are going to line up to answer your concerns. Understand there are BIG differences in personalities and approaches. One of them is an experienced patient. The other still mourning the los of his best friend of 40 years - Willy Burgdorfer.
Your questions have been respected and answered honestly. The only folks questioning "accuracy" is the chronic Lyme disease believers.
This site deals with Post-treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome. Trying to cure a disease that one already had or may not have ever had is simply NOT a rational approach. You have positive "bands for measles yet I doubt you have measles. Either you were exposed, already had them, or had an immunization. By the same token I had a serious case of mumps when I was six. An MMR wont do me a bit od good now. I'm still sterile. Its terrifying to see the LLMD fiction woven into rational thought processes.
I'm sorry you find it disturbing that I am mourning the loss of two friends who got sucked into the bad science of Lyme.
The impetus for this special issue on HIV came from a discussion a few years ago during which we established a shared interest in a revival of the sort of scholarly innovation that characterized the early years of the HIV epidemic. At its best, this work served also as an impetus for queer theory, various feminist critiques and a range of research under the rubric of science, medicine and technology studies.
Also of note was research that countered biomedical representations of HIV by foregrounding the experiences of people living with HIV through analyses of illness, identity and sexuality Adam, ; and critiques of expert and programmatic responses to HIV infection, including work on the limits of the models of rational action, that informed public health approaches to HIV prevention Patton, and that exposed the contradictory social and political effect of epidemiological reasoning and practice Oppenheimer, We make that judgment with care, wary of the dangers of nostalgia and its diminishment of the present against an unequaled, heroic past.
We recognize the fine work on HIV and AIDS currently being carried out by anthropologists, cultural critics, sociologists and others addressing, among other questions, the biopolitical dimensions of national and global responses to HIV for example Biehl, We can, however, suggest something about the shifts that have occurred of late in the social study of HIV infection. The sources of those shifts are multiple.
Here we emphasize one critical development: a set of broad transformations in the organization of social research on health related to the rise of evidence-based medicine.
Evidence-based medicine is an initiative that seeks to govern biomedicine by establishing scientific research as the fundamental ground of medical decision-making Mykhalovskiy and Weir, It has been a remarkably successful project. It is without question a complex project with multiple and conflicting effects, not something to be reduced to a singular force that, among its dubious accomplishments, has somehow wrecked critical social research on health.
At least three developments sourced in evidence-based medicine create troubles for the type of scholarly work promoted by this special issue. Second, it creates a new demand structure for the forms of research that it values. This has involved shifts in funding that promote a narrow vision of applied health research and a consolidation of biomedical and health sciences criteria of research review.
Finally, evidence-based medicine has generated new expectations for how research will be used, which restrict appreciation of the value of critical, theoretically informed scholarship. These developments have helped fuel an apparatus of funding and research committed to creating knowledge for governing health care.
This is an organization of research in which health, illness and disease are constituted as governmental problems to be ameliorated by research considered to generate evidence-based solutions and formulated within the established terms of health policy, managerial and professional discourses. The emergence of a combination antiretroviral therapy ART in enhanced the vulnerability of HIV to this closure of thought and inquiry.
The appearance of ART helped secure the credibility of the biomedical management of HIV, heightening the status of biomedicine and the health sciences as forms of knowledge guiding pandemic response and tempering at least some of the earlier critiques of the limits of science and biomedicine. HIV research from the behavioral and health sciences continues to flourish.
However, as a recent call to action highlights, much of this work focuses on where to direct discrete interventions, with little attention given to how interventions actually work Piot et al, , p. Work drawing on theory to critically reflect on current arrangement appears particularly vulnerable, often viewed as a trifle or excess from within the applied relevancies of evidence-based decision-making and the global AIDS industry.
In this new research environment, the contributions of early theoretically rich cultural and social research on HIV have been largely eclipsed by the yearning for evidence; the value of deep social science inquiry of HIV is no longer well recognized or well understood.
This special issue of Social Theory and Health intervenes in the contemporary knowledge relations shaping HIV social research. A number of rich trajectories of inquiry are suggested. The contributions in this special issue offer critical analyses of HIV prevention among gay men in the United States and Australia and of mass treatment and prevention campaigns in Western Africa and South Africa.
They were chosen from among 22 papers received in response to a call for submissions, which was distributed widely through professional and disciplinary networks, including medical anthropology and sociology listserves and the Sociologists' AIDS Network. The call invited papers from critical social sciences or cultural studies, written from disciplinary or interdisciplinary perspectives and encompassing theoretical or theoretico-empirical work.
All papers were reviewed by at least two external reviewers. The papers published here were written by authors working out of Canada, Australia, the United States and South Africa. Nguyen draws on Foucault's late work on the governmentalization of the state and contemporary discussions of Agamben's writings on the state of exception.
For Nguyen, the answer takes the form of a hypothesis. Using his fieldwork experience as an anthropologist and physician in Western Africa and devising an analysis that emphasizes continuities between contemporary forms of HIV humanitarianism and the organization of postcolonial biomedical and military power, he proposes that mass HIV treatment campaigns be understood as a novel form of legitimate therapeutic dominance.
In doing so, he invites us to consider such programs as forms of biopolitical intervention that invoke a right to intervene in order to save lives on the basis of a representation of HIV as a particular form of emergency. For Dowsett, the long-term presence of HIV risk demands a review of the matrix of prevention research and interventions. Many gay men have some knowledge and experience of a diverse set of prevention strategies that have developed over the course of the epidemic.
Yet their practices may not necessarily accord with what is expected to follow from this knowledge and experience. Declaring that in he broke his own rule of never having unprotected anal intercourse, he quickly dispenses with the usual reasons offered for taking such a risk. In place of such a tendency, Dowsett directs us to reflect on the relational and dynamic nature of the social.
Sexual cultures are by no means unchanging. The achievements of prevention work are powerful evidence of this point.
Dowsett makes an important call to recognize the plurality that now makes up gay sexual cultures and how this continues to evoke new sexual interactions, including those in which condom use or its now marked absence may have multiple meanings. We are invited to reflexively engage with the epidemic in a manner that recognizes that those who live with it, do so in ways affected by our interventions.
Importantly, whereas contemporary critiques of the use of identity categories might make us shy away from locating research subjects according to the categories of Latino immigrant and not, here it provides necessary depth to what others have identified as the worrying mismatch of assumptions Kippax and Race, , p. The study makes a valuable contribution to the research agenda through its development of the interactionist tradition and, in the course of doing so, provides a rich source of material to assist the effective tailoring of prevention programs.
The historical examination is illuminating for the way it exposes a series of consistencies in prevention education across the two examples that, it is argued, are responsible for the evident failure of both, notwithstanding significant differences in the tone and product format of the media involved. Reiterating what may be considered one of the underlying themes of this issue, Jeeves and Jolly make us especially aware of the importance of investing in prevention strategies that are tailored to local specificities.
Their focus is on the disjuncture that exists between everyday sense-making and biomedical knowledges and, thus, how the uptake of any biomedical intervention — knowledge or drugs — relies on research attuned to the difficulties that any of us may experience when reconciling disparate conceptions of risk. Resonating with the work of others who have highlighted the problematic of the mythical autonomous liberal subject see for example, Adam, ; Holt and Stephenson, ; Mykhalovskiy, ; Tomso, , Jeeves and Jolly underscore the importance of cultural research attuned to the socio-historico-political processes through which HIV risk emerges, and, therefore, may be averted.
For those unfamiliar with the array of social, political, ethical and medical changes that have occurred with the advent of HIV antiretroviral treatments in late , it will be evident that there remains an immense amount of work to be carried out by social researchers.
On the one hand, the paper provides varying emphases on what it is to do social theory or theoretico-empirical work. On the other hand, it contextualizes these in ways that may resonate for others working in the health field and who find themselves having to account for methodological innovation that extends beyond the conventions of the natural sciences.
We are immensely grateful to our interlocutors for the incisive way they have illuminated HIV as in no less urgent need of creative thought and action than that which — pre-antiretrovirals — put this unwanted imaginable on the map as an exemplar of patient activism, medical innovation and radical theoretical development. We close with a note of thanks. This special issue would not have been possible without the support of the journal editors Paul Higgs and Graham Scambler, the tireless assistance of Miranda Scambler and the contributions of the anonymous reviewers.
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Google Scholar. CrossRef Google Scholar. Biehl, J. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Crimp, D. October 43, special issue. Dowsett, G. Epstein, S. Flowers, P. Fontdevila, J. Holt, M. Jeeves, A. Kippax, S. Martin, E. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Merson, M. Lancet — Mykhalovskiy, E. Contributions from institutional ethnographic research. Nguyen, V.
Oppenheimer, G. In: E. Fox and D. Fee eds. The Making of a Chronic Disease. Patton, C. New York: Routledge. Piot, P. Rosengarten, M. Thurtle and R. Mitchell eds. Tomso, G. South Atlantic Quarterly — Watney, S. London: Metheun. Personalised recommendations. Cite article How to cite? ENW EndNote.