The importance of maintaining an adequate hydration status and the complexity of the water balance make it necessary to study the lifestyle factors that can influence or modify these variables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hydration status and dietary water intake for a sample of Spanish schoolchildren from 7 to 12 years old and their associations with physical activity PA and sedentary behaviors. A total of schoolchildren was studied In addition, a 3-day dietary record was completed to evaluate their water intake according to EFSA parameters. Student's t-test was used to study the normal variables, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for those that were not normal.
Add ice cubes made from fresh fruit to a glass of water. Reply Linda, Certain beverages those that contain caffeine and foods like Linguerie models and watermelon are diuretics; in other words, they work to REMOVE water from your system, and speed up dehydration. A good rule of thumb is at least Adult sedentary fluid requirement of your body weight in ounces of water. The extent to which water intake and requirements are determined by energy intake and expenditure is understudied but in the clinical setting it has long been practice to supply 1 ml per kcal administered by tube to patients unable to take in food or fluids. After 12 weeks, consumption of a high-fiber biscuit resulted in a significant Adult sedentary fluid requirement sedentaru fecal water loss compared with a placebo. Urinary excretion of water and solutes. Kilojoules on the menu Chinese Simplified Kilojoule labelling is now on the menu of large food chain businesses — both in-store and online Nutrition Reviews, requurement 8 Dept of Nutrition.
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Hill, D. What role for thirst? Human milk contains 11 mEq of chloride per liter, which makes the chloride level higher than the sodium level on a mEq basis. Late hyponatremia in very low birthweight infants less than 1. As plain drinking water has zero Adult sedentary fluid requirement, it can also help with managing Vintage car dc magneto Adult sedentary fluid requirement and reducing caloric intake when substituted for drinks with calories, like regular soda. Burgess, M. The same problem exists in young athletes. Food Sources of Dietary Fiber Appendix Holliday and Segar have estimated that in general, 78 mg 2 mEq per kcal should maintain potassium balance in children of all ages as long as there is no preexisting potassium deficit or ongoing excessive loss. Pike, R. The discretionary intake of sodium is quite variable and can be quite large. Hypertension UpdateVol; 1.
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- Many people have heard the recommendation to drink 8 glasses of water per day.
- In addition, a need to lose, maintain, or gain weight and other factors affect how many calories should be consumed.
The importance of maintaining an adequate hydration status and the complexity of the water balance make it necessary to study the lifestyle factors that can influence or modify these variables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hydration status and dietary water intake for a sample of Spanish schoolchildren from 7 to 12 years old and their associations with physical activity PA and sedentary behaviors.
A total of schoolchildren was studied In addition, a 3-day dietary record was completed to evaluate their water intake according to EFSA parameters. Student's t-test was used to study the normal variables, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for those that were not normal. In the case of the categorical variables, the Z and Chi-Square proportions tests were used.
The Bonferroni test was used to adjust the values in multiple comparisons. To evaluate the influence of these lifestyles on the urine osmolality, a 2-way ANOVA and an odds ratio were used. A total of Only Approximately half of the participants presented an inadequate hydration status which was higher in males than in females.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: Due to ethical restrictions and participant confidentiality, individual data cannot be made publicly available.
Data from this study are available upon request from the Complutense University of Madrid UCM , for researchers who meet the criteria for access to confidential data. Coca-Cola Iberia only provided financial support in the form of salaries for RU but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: I have read the journal's policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests. Water is practically essential for all of the functions of our bodies. Its regulation is based on a complex endocrine system that balances its intake through food, beverages and metabolic water production and loss through skin, sweat, lungs, urine and feces [ 1 ].
The amount lost in urine depends on water consumed, the solute content of diet high intakes of salt or protein will increase the daily fluid replacement because of the limited capacity of the kidneys to concentrate urine and on the total losses [ 2 ].
Equally, the body cannot store excess water, so the kidneys get rid of any temporary excess by producing a large volume of dilute urine [ 4 ]. Adequate hydration in schoolchildren can be related to better performance at concentration tasks [ 5 ] and better physical performance [ 4 ], especially in hot environments [ 6 ].
Healthy children may also be at risk of dehydration if there is a sudden increase in water loss for any reason, and physically active children will be at particular risk during periods of warm weather. In this situation, an increased rate of evaporative cooling is achieved at the expense of an increased loss of water from the body [ 4 ].
Additionally, American College of Sports Medicine [ 8 ] also recommends thirst or urine color scales and plasma osmolality. In our study, thirst scales have not been considered appropriate because of the complexity of filled the questionnaire by parents through the impressions of children. Urine color scales have not been taking into consideration to evaluate the hydration status due to the lack of facilities in our study circumstances to realize an assessment of the urine sample by trained professionals on-site, who realized the anthropometry.
Plasma osmolality is also an excelled standard, but it could be considered an expensive and invasive method [ 9 ] and urine osmolality has been considered a valid and reliable indicator of hydration status and could be used in field settings [ 10 ]. For this reason, urine analysis has been chosen as a practical, fast and less expensive method [ 11 ]. The dynamicity of the water balance makes it especially important to study factors that may modify it; physical activity PA and sedentary behaviors can be included among these factors [ 12 , 13 ].
Regarding the role of inadequate hydration in PA, Stachenfeld et al. In this sense, the sweat volume produced during PA practice directly affects the hydration status [ 15 ]. Despite the massive amount of knowledge about the physiological inter-regulation between these factors, very few studies have evaluated the hydration status in schoolchildren who maintain active lifestyles and perform PA for recreational purposes and in an unplanned manner [ 16 ].
Assessing physical activity behaviors in children is a complex issue. Sedentary leisure behaviors are gaining notoriety among the lifestyle factors. Currently, sedentary behaviors are considered an independent factor of PA that could be interacting with dietary and hydration patterns.
Very few studies relate certain sedentary behaviors to different intake of food and beverages in a quantitative or qualitative manner. This interaction could affect the hydration status. Therefore, we consider it especially interesting to study dietary habits, PA and sedentary behaviors in order to quantify the influence of lifestyle factors on hydration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hydration status and dietary water intake in a sample of 7- to year-old schoolchildren and their association with different lifestyles according to their PA and sedentary behaviors.
The design, recruitment of subjects, and methodology regarding anthropometry and urine analysis have been described elsewhere already [ 20 ]. All schools were chosen randomly, looking to include children from different locations of the Spanish geography.
Permission was requested to meet the parents of children in the age group 7—12 years. Once permission was given, the details of the study were explained to parents and all questions answered. Written informed consent was then sought to include their children in the study [ 20 ]. After this step, lifestyle information and a 3-day dietary record were collected, and the necessary material to collect hour urine samples h was provided. A total of 1, children was given the opportunity to participate in the study.
Of these, children provided written informed consent; 16 were excluded because they did not collect the urine sample correctly and 20 were excluded because they did not fully complete the lifestyle questionnaire.
The final sample, therefore, compromised from 7 to 12 years old; The fieldwork was performed between February and March , when the average temperatures were In addition, the participants had received no pharmacological treatments in the 3 months prior to the study with corticosteroids, insulin or diuretics. All measurements took place at the schools in the mornings and in accordance with norms set out by the WHO World Health Organization [ 21 ].
The weights and heights were measured using a digital electronic balance range 0. A lifestyle questionnaire [ 23 ], previously applied in other Spanish populations of children and adults [ 24 , 25 , 26 ], was filled out by the parents or legal guardians S1 Appendix. The questionnaire included questions to quantify the primary activities that could indicate an active lifestyle and sedentary behaviors, both on weekdays and weekends.
This questionnaire collected the frequency of active play, physical activity as a subject in school, extracurricular physical activities and the time spent on each activity. Parents, legal guardians or caregivers of schoolchildren collected this information through active observation except for physical activity as subject in school and extracurricular physical activities.
In the last two cases teachers provided the information. In the case of active plays, information provided by schoolchildren on the activities carried out during the break has also been taken into account. When all of the information was collected, the reported mean of PA hours per week was calculated activities that increase the energy expenditure above the BMR Basal Metabolic Rate according to the Compendium of Physical Activities [ 27 ].
These activities included: active play, PA performed in school and extracurricular physical activities and sedentary behaviors hours spent in front of the PC personal computer , video game console and TV television. Parents or legal guardians filled out a dietary record [ 30 ] about the consumption of food and beverages by the schoolchildren over 3 days 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day.
The days chosen to collect the information were Thursday and Friday as weekdays and Sunday and weekend day. The questionnaire collected the amounts of food and beverages consumed and the time of each intake. In the case of lunch on weekdays that was not consumed with parents, the information collected was checked against the menus provided by school catering service. Once collected, the data were processed in DIAL software for nutritional assessment [ 31 ].
Specifically, water as a beverage is defined as water in the form of tap water, mineral water and sparkling mineral water. A hour urine sample was collected on a weekend day, and it coincided with the dietary record. All of the participants received written instructions and individual containers for the correct collection of the sample.
The volume as well as the urinary urea [ 33 ], sodium, potassium [ 34 ] and creatinine [ 35 ] were determined. To confirm appropriate collection of h urine, the correlation between urinary levels of creatinine and muscular mass of each subject was taken into account. Fat-free mass was calculated bearing in mind the creatinine excreted over 24 h in urine using the following equation [ 36 ]:. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test the normality of the variables.
For the categorical variables, the Z and Chi-Square proportion tests were used. To evaluate the influence of the lifestyles, a 2-way ANOVA was performed on the urinary osmolality and different biochemical parameters, and the water dietary intake and beverages were explored with a post hoc Bonferroni analysis. In addition, the OR adjusted by sex and the OR adjusted by sex and other lifestyle factors were calculated.
The sample description is shown in Table 1. Table 2 shows a description of the different parameters related to hydration and the dietary water intake studied here. We performed a linear regression analysis to analyze the risk of dehydration considering all these variables. On the other hand, water intake was not associated to the risk of dehydration. In the sedentary groups, creatinine and sodium excretion was higher.
Table 4 shows crude and adjusted ORs that relate different aspects of lifestyle to the risk of dehydration. The h urine osmolality result was similar to that in other studies, in schoolchildren, as performed using the same methodology in different countries such as France [ 38 ], Egypt [ 39 , 40 ], Greece [ 41 ], Portugal [ 42 ] and the United States [ 43 ].
We found that males had higher osmolality values than females. There are some factors that could explain these disparities between males and females. First, males show higher intake of food and energy, while females show higher intake of water-dense food, specifically fruits and vegetables [ 45 , 46 , 47 ]. Females also have a lower protein [ 48 ], sodium, potassium and phosphorus [ 49 ] intake and, consequently, lower total consumption of solutes.
Additionally, the different PA patterns between the sexes could play a significant role on these disparities; before and after puberty, males also show a higher PA and higher non-renal water losses [ 44 , 50 ].
Sodium intake can also influence hydration status since the excretion of sodium excess requires the excretion of water. The best method to assess sodium intake is to measure the excretion of sodium in urine for 24 hours. Urea excretion is also higher in IH, suggesting a higher protein intake.
And finally, although water intake was similar in both IH and AH children, the former had also lower diuresis, which suggest that IH children could have higher extra-renal losses of water. This difference could be based on the disparity between methodologies used to collect dietary water intake information. Ishii et al. Yamamoto-Kimura et al. However, adherence to PA guidelines may be a risk factor for IH if the water intake does not increase proportionally to the losses associated with higher PA in the case of our study, there are no differences in the water intake depending on the lifestyle.
Additionally, other socioeconomic factors such as accessibility to beverages may also be influence on the hydration status, so they have to be considered as other potential risks of IH. As far as we know, the effects of compliance with the PA guidelines on the state of hydration in schoolchildren have not been evaluated. These data highlight the importance of raising awareness about the hydration status in schoolchildren and their environment in which the primary source of hydration should be water as a beverage.
It is especially important when it comes to implementing a strategy to promote the performance of PA, with nutritional education playing a key role.
NCBI Bookshelf. Johnson, R. There is considerable evidence that dietary potassium exerts a beneficial effect in hypertension, and recommendations for increased intake of fruits and vegetables NRC, would raise potassium intake of adults to about 3, mg 90 mEq per day. Until recently, about the only definitive research regarding fluid intake and health was a study of Seventh Day Adventists that was published in Hydration and disease. Fitness Tip of the Day!
Adult sedentary fluid requirement. Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition.
Victorian government portal for older people, with information about government and community services and programs. Fluids include fresh water and all other liquids like milk, coffee, tea, soup, juice and even soft drinks. Fresh water is the best drink because it does not contain kilojoules and is best for hydrating the body.
Milk particularly low-fat varieties is an important fluid, especially for children, and is about 90 per cent water. Tea can be an important source of fluid. Tea can help you meet your daily fluid recommendations, and is a source of antioxidants and polyphenols, which appear to protect against heart disease and cancer. The following content is displayed as Tabs. Once you have activated a link navigate to the end of the list to view its associated content.
The activated link is defined as Active Tab. If you eat and enjoy fruit and vegetables every day, your child may eventually follow your lead Dairy products and dairy alternatives are packed with calcium, protein and lots of other essential nutrients. Calcium is vital for healthy teeth and bones.
It is also important for your muscles The humble egg is a powerhouse of nutritional goodness. Eggs are full of things your body needs. They are a great source of protein, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin D Protein is an important nutrient that helps your body grow and repair cells. A good balance between exercise and food intake is important to maintain a healthy body weight Learn how to cut down on salt Creating healthy habits during childhood helps to ensure lifelong healthy Kilojoule labelling is now on the menu of large food chain businesses — both in-store and online Eating fruit and vegetables can help protect against some diseases including diabetes and some cancers Did you know lunch is just as important as breakfast?
A nutritious lunch will give you the energy to get through an afternoon of work Meat and poultry are a great source of protein and lots of other nutrients your body needs.
Cutting down on fat is not as hard as you think. Here's how to maintain a healthy weight by consuming the right amount and types of fat Encourage children to drink and enjoy water. Sweet drinks such as juice, cordial and soft drinks may cause health problems for children if consumed in large amounts Consumption of drinks containing added sugar is associated with weight gain, reduced bone strength and tooth erosion and decay A balanced UV approach is required to ensure some sun exposure for vitamin D while minimising the risk of skin cancer Antioxidants scavenge free radicals from the body's cells, and prevent or reduce the damage caused by oxidation If you don't have enough calcium in your diet, your bones will eventually become weak and brittle Even women who aren't planning to have a baby should increase their folate intake in case of unplanned pregnancy A balanced approach to sunlight exposure will help you get enough vitamin D while protecting against skin cancer There is no evidence that any one vitamin can slow ageing, restore sex drive or cure infertility No special diet or 'miracle food' can cure arthritis, but some conditions may be helped by avoiding or including certain foods It is important to identify any foods or food chemicals that may trigger your asthma, but this must be done under strict medical supervision Diet can influence your risk of developing some cancers, but there is no evidence that specific foods can cause or cure cancer Replacing foods that contain saturated fats with foods that contain polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats will help to lower your cholesterol The Food Standards Code requires that certain foods must be listed on the package of a food, or made known to the customer upon request.
If you experience an allergic reaction to a known allergen not This health assessment questionnaire will identify which zones of your lifestyle are contributing to your personal health risk and provide actions you can take to make positive change A diet low in saturated fats and high in fibre and plant foods can substantially reduce your risk of developing heart disease Weight loss is often associated with Huntington's disease, but it doesn? The long-term effects of consuming a combination of different additives in our food are currently unknown Some foods include ingredients that have been genetically modified GM , or are made using ingredients derived from GM organisms Chemicals such as pesticides, antibiotics and hormones are used to boost food production and ensure adequate food supply Pregnant women and young children should limit consumption of fish that contain high levels of mercury Children who skip breakfast may lack sufficient vitamins and minerals including iron, calcium, zinc and vitamin B Victorian State Public Health Nutritionist, Veronica Graham shows us how to cook a light and healthy Christmas meal without overindulging.
Whatever way you celebrate, there are ways to eat healthily Birthday parties can be healthy as well as fun. Some popular food from different cultures is high in fat and kilojoules.
There are, however, some healthy alternatives Reporter Flip Shelton takes us on a tour and shows us what fresh produce is available at a local market Eating healthy food doesn't mean giving up your favourite foods and switching to eating only salads Nutritionist Shane Bilsborough shows us how much energy it takes to burn off a fast food lunch.
Join tradies, Corky and Danny as they find out how to maintain a healthy weight Victorian State Public Health Nutritionist Veronica Graham takes us shopping for the right foods to include in your childs lunchbox Victorian State Public Health Nutritionist Veronica Graham shares three healthy and delicious lunchbox examples for the kids and provides some great food preparation tips to save you time throughout Labels on packaged food can give you useful information about the nutrition, ingredients, storage and weight of the food.
Add full stop to pull quote Victorian State Nutritionist, Veronica Graham talks about the benefits of shopping at fresh produce markets Check out these simple tips to keep your snacks on track Cockroaches prefer to live in kitchens and other food preparation areas, so they can feed off food spills In a gas or electricity blackout you may have to think laterally to come up with ways to continue bathing, eating and keeping warm People who fish in the Lower Yarra and Maribyrnong rivers need to be careful about eating their catch because of the risk of chemical exposure Listeria infection is uncommon but very dangerous for the elderly, people whose immune systems are not working properly and pregnant women and their unborn babies In the hot weather there is a higher risk of food poisoning but if you follow some simple rules when you prepare, handle and store food it will significantly reduce your risk of getting sick Some people diet because they have a poor body image, not because they want to be a healthy weight Breastfeeding women need to eat regularly and include a wide variety of healthy foods in their diet There are a number of ways that a person with a disability can successfully avoid unwanted weight loss First foods for babies can be prepared easily and cheaply at home without salt, seasonings and sweeteners Offer children the same foods as the family, with a variety of textures and flavours for balanced nutrition Children are able to decide how much food they need for activity and growth if allowed to eat according to their appetite Snacks are an important part of a healthy diet for active children, so offer nutritious as well as high energy snacks Good nutrition, a healthy diet and physical activity can help Elders prevent or manage health problems Good nutrition and physical exercise help to keep Koori kids healthy and avoid diseases when they get older Some foods should be avoided during pregnancy as they carry bacteria that could harm your unborn baby As an adolescent boy aged 14 to 18 you need enough nutritious food to help you grow and develop Life for men aged 19 to 50 is typically full of major life events.
As a man between the ages of 51 and 70, your body becomes less efficient at absorbing nutrients from the food and drink you consume As you get older you need fewer calories, but your need for other nutrients remains unchanged. This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by: Deakin University - School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences.
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