The investigations, which are the first to go beyond individual case reports, reveal outcomes that are remarkably consistent with rare instances of infants who lost their penises in accidents and who were reassigned as females. Both clinical trials and case reports powerfully argue for nature over nurture in establishing gender identity. The studies suggest that male gender identity is directly related to normal male patterns of hormone exposure in utero," he says. The investigations began in In one study, Reiner and director of pediatric urology John Gearhart followed 14 children born with cloacal exstrophy.
Cheryl asks Rob how treatment has helped him to take responsibility for what he did. We cannot predict what parts they may want later," Dreger says. Photograph by Mike Belleme for TIME They sit in the circle, the man who exposed himself to at least women, next to the man who molested his stepdaughter, across from the man who sexually assaulted his neighbor. But some men have failed to cope with this new world. Or do we internalize something different? Others instruct their patients to aboutt as their victims. Every one of the eight men in the room has Magazine articles about changing sex convicted of a sex crime and mandated by a court to see a therapist. But it is clear that Tom sullivan nude pics many people these binaries are bedrocks they will fight to defend. It is typically difficult to recruit enough transgender subjects to conduct studies ses high statistical power. Intersex Society of North Magazine articles about changing sex, www.
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This is the timeworn stereotype that science has long reinforced.
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Blue-collar men in rich countries are in trouble. They must learn to adapt. Men dominate finance, technology, films, sports, music and even stand-up comedy. In much of the world they still enjoy social and legal privileges simply because they have a Y chromosome. So it might seem odd to worry about the plight of men.
Yet there is plenty of cause for concern. Men cluster at the bottom as well as the top. They earn fewer university degrees than women. One group in particular is suffering see article. Poorly educated men in rich countries have had difficulty coping with the enormous changes in the labour market and the home over the past half-century.
As technology and trade have devalued brawn, less-educated men have struggled to find a role in the workplace. Women, on the other hand, are surging into expanding sectors such as health care and education, helped by their superior skills.
Men who lose jobs in manufacturing often never work again. And men without work find it hard to attract a permanent mate. The result, for low-skilled men, is a poisonous combination of no job, no family and no prospects.
Those on the political left tend to focus on economics. Shrinking job opportunities for men, they say, are entrenching poverty and destroying families.
Around a fifth of working-age American men with only a high-school diploma have no job. Those on the right worry about the collapse of the family. The vast majority of women would prefer to have a partner who does his bit both financially and domestically. Hence the unravelling of working-class families. The two-parent family, still the norm among the elite, is vanishing among the poor. They are also not very good at forming stable families of their own. These two sides often talk past each other.
But their explanations are not contradictory: both economics and social change are to blame, and the two causes reinforce each other. The OECD, a think-tank, predicts that the absolute number of single-parent households will continue to rise in nearly all rich countries.
What can be done? Part of the solution lies in a change in cultural attitudes. Over the past generation, middle-class men have learned that they need to help with child care, and have changed their behaviour. Working-class men need to catch up. Women have learned that they can be surgeons and physicists without losing their femininity. Men need to understand that traditional manual jobs are not coming back, and that they can be nurses or hairdressers without losing their masculinity.
Policymakers also need to lend a hand, because foolish laws are making the problem worse. America reduces the supply of marriageable men by locking up millions of young males for non-violent offences and then making it hard for them to find work when they get out in Georgia, for example, felons are barred from feeding pigs, fighting fires or working in funeral homes.
A number of rich countries discourage poor people from marrying or cohabiting by cutting their benefits if they do. Some sensible policies that are good for everybody are particularly good for boys. The growing equality of the sexes is one of the biggest achievements of the post-war era: people have greater opportunities than ever before to achieve their ambitions regardless of their gender. But some men have failed to cope with this new world.
It is time to give them a hand. Join them. Subscribe to The Economist today. Media Audio edition Economist Films Podcasts. New to The Economist? Sign up now Activate your digital subscription Manage your subscription Renew your subscription. Topics up icon. Blogs up icon. Current edition.
Audio edition. Economist Films. The Economist apps. Social change The weaker sex Blue-collar men in rich countries are in trouble. Reuse this content About The Economist. Daily chart Millions of millionaires. Subscribe now. Each week, over one million subscribers trust us to help them make sense of the world.
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After a decade and a half of semi-fame, the writer and performer thought he had things figured out. By David Marchese. Rowan, who identifies as gender fluid, says that watching politicians fight over which bathroom transgender people belong in is upsetting. By Gabrielle Hamilton. By Jody Rosen.
Magazine articles about changing sex. Highlights
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See All Local Map content has been skipped. Get Our App. Download our Free App. Join Us. Writer's Guidelines. Here's how to submit it to us. Download the Writer's Guidelines. Travel Tips Vacation Ideas Destinations. Leaving AARP. The answer may be both. Kyle Scotten, a year-old from Texas who identifies as a gay man, says he did not come out until he went to college in part because attitudes were different even a few years ago.
We are always, at every point in time, the product of both. Many young people have, from a very early age, personally known people who are out. The Internet and social media, which many young people do not remember life without, have only increased early exposure to different types of people. A couple of years ago, Marie McGwier, 26, started selling Gender is over! If you want it shirts online.
Proceeds go to charity. McGwier publishes the responses on Tumblr. For a limited time, TIME is giving all readers special access to subscriber-only stories. For complete access, we encourage you to become a subscriber. Click here. With gender, the identity breakdown seems newer to many people — and in some ways tougher to unpack.
Then there is gender identity sense of self , gender socialization how people are expected to act and gender expression how a person dresses or styles their hair and so on. Even for those tuned in to such things, keeping track of it all can be overwhelming. About eight years ago Nick Teich, a year-old transgender man, started the first summer camp in America for transgender youth. I have to look this up. For those who grew up alienated by the options, finding a label that feels right can be freeing.
Ford, who goes by they and identifies as agender — meaning they feel they have no gender at all — was assigned female at birth, came out as a transgender man at age 20, tried hormones for a couple years and then stopped.
Gender and Sexuality: Beyond 'He' or 'She' | Time
The investigations, which are the first to go beyond individual case reports, reveal outcomes that are remarkably consistent with rare instances of infants who lost their penises in accidents and who were reassigned as females. Both clinical trials and case reports powerfully argue for nature over nurture in establishing gender identity.
The studies suggest that male gender identity is directly related to normal male patterns of hormone exposure in utero," he says. The investigations began in In one study, Reiner and director of pediatric urology John Gearhart followed 14 children born with cloacal exstrophy. A number of anomalies are associated with this problem. A boy has no penis, but normal testicles.
In a girl, there is no clitoris but usually a vagina. She is raised as a girl," explains Reiner. The first study followed 14 XY individuals--genetic males, with an intersex appearance of no penis but normal testicles, and normal male hormone levels at birth. Twelve of the children were reassigned female, yet the parents reported that all displayed typical male behavior throughout childhood. Six of the 12 switched themselves to the male gender between the ages of 5 and 12 years, and the two children not subjected to surgery are psychologically well-adjusted males who do not have penises, Reiner reports.
Reiner describes one telling case of a child reassigned to being female. He loves cars, trucks, and Legos, makes guttural sounds when playing with them, and doesn't go near dolls. Eight of the 12 have reassigned themselves to the gender dictated by their XY chromosomes and molded by their prenatal hormone exposure.
But he was raised as Brenda from the age of 22 months, when he was castrated after his parents approved sex reassignment following a botched circumcision performed at 8 months. Hailed as a resounding success in the literature by the psychologist in charge, Hopkins' John Money , the case served as a precedent for many others.
But reality was far different. He eventually married, adopted his stepchildren, and today is a grandfather. The medical community also learned the true outcome of David's case about three years ago and faced the inescapable conclusion that perhaps thousands of individuals may have been sex-reassigned into misery.
The pair had interesting ties to the case: Diamond was part of the research team at the University of Kansas that had identified the masculinizing effects of testosterone on fetal guinea pigs in ; Sigmundson was Reimer's psychiatrist in his hometown of Winnipeg.
Candidates for sex reassignment aren't rare. About one in 2, births is an "intersex," a person with ambiguous genitalia, or reproductive structures from both sexes. All are angry at the surgeries they endured without their consent or understanding. In contrast, sex reassignment surgery works well for transsexuals, whose gender identity is at odds with their chromosomal and gonadal sex, and who request the surgery. Making a Biological "He" into a Social "She" The traditional medical decision to endow a child whose penis never developed fully or was damaged is based on a yardstick of sorts.
Those falling in between have their organs shortened, a penis becoming a clitoris. Further plastic surgeries and hormone treatments during puberty complete the transformation, with external female genitalia sculpted from scrotal tissue. Gary Berkovitz , director of pediatric endocrinology at the University of Miami School of Medicine, explains the procedures. The phallus is recessed.
Current techniques emphasize maintenance of innervation, and experimental evidence indicates that sensitivity in the new clitoris is preserved. However, none of the children has grown to adulthood yet to see if it works. The new techniques are very different than what was done 30 to 35 years ago. The girl won't bleed because there is no uterus, but she can have normal cycles. Often it is possible to do this with birth control pills as the estrogen supplements.
Breasts develop too, given appropriate hormonal stimulation," Berkovitz says. Berkovitz describes the technique. And little children also look at each other" and can be cruel when a boy appears to be different, he adds. But all too often, appearances cannot mask the upheaval within. Happy endings for XY individuals assigned to femaleness, at least so far, appear to be rare, or at least unreported. Adding to the trauma are the procedures. Mistakes have been made. A lot of people wanted to do well by their patients and made decisions according to what seemed the right thing to do," relates William Futrell , a professor of plastic surgery at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
But some in the field question the assumptions fueling those good intentions. That is simply idiotic. The brain tells the individual what to do with the penis, the vagina, or any other part of the anatomy," says Reiner. He and Dreger trace the roots of sex reassignment to the behavioral movement of the s and s.
But to a boy born without a penis, he doesn't know what he is missing. It was felt that when such a boy was born, he could be converted to whatever you wanted," says Reiner. John Money, who declined comment for this article, is widely regarded as the father of the field. It is the traditional timing of female sex reassignment that opens a bioethical can of worms.
But that paradigm may be shifting, adds Dreger, to delaying surgery until the person can decide. That's why unconsenting children and adults should never be subject to cosmetic, medically unnecessary surgeries designed to alter their sexual tissue.
We cannot predict what parts they may want later," Dreger says. To help shift the age at which sex reassignment is offered, the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association publishes standards of care for treating gender identity disorders. The stated goal of treatment is "lasting personal comfort with the gendered self in order to maximize overall psychological well-being and self-fulfillment," which can hardly be established at two days of age.
Christine Jorgensen was his patient. Benjamin was interested in these patients, and developed criteria for treating them. He made a simple statement, that if you can't change the mind to fit the body, then change the body to fit the mind," says Futrell. Sex reassignment attempts to do just the opposite. For some patients, sex reassignment to create female genitalia may still be appropriate.
And care has come a long way from the time when groups of curious interns would gaggle at the exposed crotch of a mortified intersexed child, as several people recall in Dreger's book. And he adds that the technology to reconstruct a penis, rather than removing tissue to mimic a female, has come a long way. With hindsight from the field of bioethics, born in the s, sex reassignment surgery as performed in the s retrospectively hit all the buttons--paternalism, informed consent, the doctor-patient relationship, and the Hippocratic oath to "do no harm.
Someday this will rank up there with Tuskegee. References 1. Diamond and H. Sigmundson, "Sex reassignment at birth. Long-term review and clinical implications," Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine , , Bradley et al. Intersex Society of North America, www.