Religion contraceptives teenagers aids-

Often, religion can divide when it comes to policies like contraception. But in Rwanda, both sides have found a compromise even as their faith has led them in different directions. January 2, And for decades, that meant their patients could not receive modern birth control. Holographic portraits of Jesus and Mary stare down from the walls of every exam and consultation room, and nuns wander the corridors in full gray habits.

Religion contraceptives teenagers aids

Religion contraceptives teenagers aids

Religion contraceptives teenagers aids

The work status in Clntraceptives was given in several categories. Models 1 and 2 examined the individual effect of ethnicity and religion variables on CUC Religion contraceptives teenagers aids women of reproductive age. Some justifiably fear that disclosure to their parents will lead to abandonment or abuse. Monitor Daily. Table 3 Multivariate logistic analysis of effect of principal exposure variables and some selected characteristics on current contraceptive use by women of reproductive age years in Nigeria. Ethiopia Journal of Health Development. By using this aidz, you agree Religion contraceptives teenagers aids the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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The First Five Thousand. Dennis Guys with sexy feet Continuing Religion contraceptives teenagers aids and social problems in portions of the black community, ongoing racism, and the growth of black nationalism have played roles in the resurgence. Am J Public Health. Islam Islam views the ideal expression of sexual love as being within marriage. Such sexual enticement is not balanced by or accompanied by clear messages about avoiding unintended pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases STDs or about managing contrraceptives activity in a safe, caring, and healthy manner. In the Relf case Relf v Weinbergera federal district court found that an estimatedReliggionpoor tednagers were sterilized annually under federally-funded programs. Religion contraceptives teenagers aids the U. Footnotes 1 Appendix B presents additional historical perspectives on the interaction of religion and contraception. Encyclopedia of motherhood. Arguments for family planning can be found in Hindu scriptures and epic stories such as the Mahabharata although many Hindus see it as their duty to have a family.

In Pope Benedict XVI said that the use of condoms could sometimes be considered a first step toward moral behavior, but a spokesperson for the church later clarified that the use of condoms was still considered immoral and that the pope had not intended to take a position "on the problem of condoms in general.

  • Birth control , also known as contraception and fertility control , is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
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Often, religion can divide when it comes to policies like contraception. But in Rwanda, both sides have found a compromise even as their faith has led them in different directions. January 2, And for decades, that meant their patients could not receive modern birth control. Holographic portraits of Jesus and Mary stare down from the walls of every exam and consultation room, and nuns wander the corridors in full gray habits.

For decades, if you needed health care in this town, this was your option. But now, around the corner, wedged into half of an old municipal office at the end of a long dirt road, a tiny government health center whispers an alternative.

Battles over access to birth control and abortion are often cast as a fight between a secular left and a religious right. But in Rwanda, as in much of Africa, people on both sides of the aisle feel God is with them. Both advocates and opponents of modern family planning frequently cite faith as their motivation.

So the church and the government struck a deal. Tiny, bare-bones operations, they had a single purpose: to give out birth control. Today, there are 88 of these, tethered to about 80 percent of the Catholic hospitals and clinics in the country. Many Rwandan women have chosen modern birth control. Two-thirds of married women and nearly one-third of women total now use contraceptives.

Sex is, perhaps, not the first topic the church wants to discuss. In Rwanda, as in many countries, the prevalence of Catholic health centers means they have been close to the HIV epidemic for decades.

That, in turn, necessitated a tough moral reckoning among many Catholic health officials about the need to talk loudly and clearly to parishioners about protection against sexually transmitted diseases — a subject the church had historically spoken about only in whispers. Yet it has been reluctant to approve of the use of condoms to prevent HIV, let alone as contraception.

But Kigali is also far from Rome, and when church teachings and practical need diverge, many will quietly choose the latter.

Inside Ms. There are packets of pills and intrauterine devices, silver condom packets, and little vials of injectable contraceptives. Down the road, at the Catholic health center, Ms. She sees only about 1, patients regularly for such services, she says, and only couples. They must be free to choose what is right for them. Nasra Bishumba contributed reporting to this story.

Reporting for this story was also supported in part by a fellowship from the United Nations Foundation. Already a subscriber? This website uses cookies to improve functionality and performance. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Subscribe to the Monitor. Manage subscription. Monitor Daily Current Issue. Monitor Political Cartoons. A Christian Science Perspective.

Monitor Movie Guide. Monitor Daily. Photos of the Week. Monitor Weekly PDF. Get the best of Monitor journalism in your inbox. View newsletters By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy. Select free newsletters: The Weekender. Christian Science Perspective. Why We Wrote This Often, religion can divide when it comes to policies like contraception.

For decades, it was the only hospital in the area. By Ryan Lenora Brown Staff writer ryanlenorabrown. Masaka, Rwanda. Is the House impeachment inquiry illegitimate? Three questions. A sign directs patients to the secondary health post in Masaka, Rwanda. Nurse Jackie Buseruka runs the government health post situated down the road from Masaka's Catholic hospital. Unlike that institution, her health post offers modern birth control. Get the Monitor Stories you care about delivered to your inbox.

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Some family planning clinics also do outreach to male clients. Not surprisingly, the major predictor of personal practice is the degree of "religiosity," that is, the degree to which religion is seen as important and to which individuals observe other aspects of their religion D'Antonio, Chilman CS. Residency training in contraception, sterilization and abortion. Stud Fam Plann. Contraception Update 2nd ed. Summary of Findings This study shows that, in general, the prevalence of current use of contraceptive CUC among women of reproductive age in Nigeria is very low compared to their counterparts in the United States,[ 8 ] Namibia,[ 11 ] and in Ethiopia.

Religion contraceptives teenagers aids

Religion contraceptives teenagers aids

Religion contraceptives teenagers aids

Religion contraceptives teenagers aids

Religion contraceptives teenagers aids. Background

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This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception CUC among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system.

In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion. Contraceptives help to prevent an estimated 2. Different ethnic factors such as seeking medical treatment are serious barrier to timely health care utilization.

Contraceptive use is also common among women of all religious denominations. The heterogeneity of the Nigerian status form the basis for potential linkages in ethnicity and religion.

These include the examination of such factors as women autonomy;[ 11 , 20 , 21 ] area of residence whether urban or rural ;[ 22 ] women schooling level;[ 1 , 23 , 24 ] household wealth status and work status of the woman.

This study is designed to address this knowledge gap. Therefore, we hypothesized that ethnicity, religion and the linkages between them are important factors associated with current use of contraception among women of reproductive age years in Nigeria. We conducted secondary analysis of population based cross-sectional data for reproductive age women included in the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey NDHS.

A detailed description of this procedure is reported elsewhere. However, a weighted sample still remains as 38, women of reproductive age in Nigeria which were used for the analysis. This study is based on analysis of secondary data where all participant identifications have been removed.

In this study, the outcome or dependent variable was the Current Use of Contraceptive CUC methods which was dichotomized as 1 if respondent reported that they were currently using contraceptive or 0 if they reported otherwise. The major explanatory variables considered in this study were Ethnicity, Religion and their mediating variables. Religion of the woman was categorized as: 1 Muslim Islam has 20, respondents i.

The reproductive age of women in Nigeria is between 15 and 49 years. In this study, the ages were grouped into 3 groups with group 1: years consisting of 14, or This was categorized into whether the respondent resides in the rural or in the urban area.

In this study, 16, representing DHS does not collect data on direct measure of income. As contained in NDHS dataset, child ever born ranges from 0 — 18 children. This was grouped into 2 groups: 0 — 4 children and 5 and above. This refers to the total number of children who were living as at the time of survey out of the children ever born.

This refers to the extent to which a woman has a say in issues concerning her wellbeing and that of the family. This was classifi ed into 2 levels as described elsewhere. Although educational level was classified into 4 groups in NDHS data set, however in Nigeria, anyone who is having secondary and above is assumed literate. Nigeria is sub-divided into six geopolitical zones. In NDHS , North Central zone has 5, reproductive age women; North East zone has 5, reproductive age women; North West zone has 11, reproductive age women; South East zone contained 4, reproductive age women; South-South with 4, reproductive age women; South West has 6, reproductive age women The work status in NDHS was given in several categories.

Two levels of data analyses were adopted. First, bivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship between principal exposure variables, some selected socioeconomic and demographic background variables and CUC with Pearson chi-square test. In the last analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used because of the dichotomous nature of the response variables.

STATA version 12[ 28 ] software was employed to carry out the analysis at the different levels. To examine the effects of ethnicity and religion on current use of contraceptive CUC among reproductive age women, eight different models were developed. Models 1 and 2 examined the individual effect of ethnicity and religion variables on CUC among women of reproductive age. Model 3 examined the combination of the two principal explanatory variables.

Model 4 checked for the interaction effects of these two principal explanatory variables. Models 5, 6 and 7 examined the individual effects of ethnicity, Religion and interaction effect of ethnicity and religion respectively, while controlling for other socioeconomic and demographic background variables.

Finally, Model 8 examined the combined effects of the 3 explanatory variables, while controlling for other background variables.

For religion, CUC was significantly lowest for the Muslim women 5. Relationship between current use of contraceptive outcome , religion, ethnicity level and some socio-demographic background characteristics. Table 2 presents the multivariate logistic analysis of the independent effects unadjusted of the principal exposure variables on the status of CUC by women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Model 1 shows the unadjusted odd ratios of effects of ethnicity on CUC. Multivariate logistic analysis of effect of principal exposure variables on current contraceptive use by women of reproductive age years in Nigeria.

Model 2 presents the unadjusted effects of religion on CUC. The odds of CUC is 5. However, the odd for Catholics women and Other Christians are significantly higher compare with Muslim women, but is not significant for women of other religion. Model 4 shows the independent effects of interaction between the two principal exposure variables—religion and ethnicity.

HFKS and Islam. Also, women of Yoruba origin and of other religions has After adjusting for some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, model 5 revealed that the odds of CUC for other Christian women reduced signifi cantly to as low as two times compared with Muslim women.

The same is true for Igbo women. However, the relationship between women of other religion with CUC is no longer significant. Multivariate logistic analysis of effect of principal exposure variables and some selected characteristics on current contraceptive use by women of reproductive age years in Nigeria.

Model 7 considers the interaction effects of the principal exposure variables while controlling for other background characteristics. It was found that only the odds of CUC for women of HFKS and women that are of other religion was no longer signifi cant after adjustment for interaction effects. Model 8 shows the combined effects of all principal exposures while controlling for some selected characteristics.

However, the adjusted variables such as age group, place of residence, household wealth, number of children living, region of residence except for women of. South East , autonomy level, education level and marital status were signifi cantly related to CUC.

Interestingly, in all models , variation in work status was never signifi cant. This study shows that, in general, the prevalence of current use of contraceptive CUC among women of reproductive age in Nigeria is very low compared to their counterparts in the United States,[ 8 ] Namibia,[ 11 ] and in Ethiopia.

First, CUC among women of reproductive age in Nigeria significantly varied by ethnicity. The study also found that CUC varied significantly among women across all categories of association between ethnicity and religion thereby justifying their predictor effect on CUC.

This explains the findings in Ethiopia that women who had polygamous marriage were by half less likely to use modern contraceptive methods than women in monogamous marriage. It must be noted, however, that variations in the association between ethnicity and religion was still significant, even after controlling for some cofounding socioeconomic and demographic variables.

One major limitation of this study is that a cause-effect relationship could not be measured as a result of cross-sectional nature of DHS data. This study concluded that current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age in Nigeria is not just a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and some socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interaction between the ethnicity and Religion.

Such policies must include strategies to address ethnic, religion and cultural impediments to the use of family planning methods. By promoting strategies to reduce socio-economic disparities among women of various ethnic groups through a strong advocacy to increase the level of educational attainment by women. By promoting awareness among the various religious and community leaders of use of family planning methods who will in turn sensitize their followers through frequent congregational conversation programs.

Any policy on public health objectives aimed at increasing the use of contraceptives should also consider that linkages between religion and ethnicity are very important factors and should be addressed. Conflict of Interest: Author declares no confl ict of interest. Funding: The author has no financial assistance to carry out the research. CUC among women of reproductive age in Nigeria signifi cantly varied by ethnicity. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system.

Ethical Approval This study is based on analysis of secondary data where all participant identifications have been removed. Variable Measures Outcome Variable In this study, the outcome or dependent variable was the Current Use of Contraceptive CUC methods which was dichotomized as 1 if respondent reported that they were currently using contraceptive or 0 if they reported otherwise.

Explanatory Variables The major explanatory variables considered in this study were Ethnicity, Religion and their mediating variables. Religion Religion of the woman was categorized as: 1 Muslim Islam has 20, respondents i.

Socioeconomic and demographic Variables Age The reproductive age of women in Nigeria is between 15 and 49 years. Place of Residence This was categorized into whether the respondent resides in the rural or in the urban area. Number of Children Living This refers to the total number of children who were living as at the time of survey out of the children ever born.

Educational Level Although educational level was classified into 4 groups in NDHS data set, however in Nigeria, anyone who is having secondary and above is assumed literate. Region Nigeria is sub-divided into six geopolitical zones.

Data Analysis Methods Two levels of data analyses were adopted. Models of Interest To examine the effects of ethnicity and religion on current use of contraceptive CUC among reproductive age women, eight different models were developed.

Table 1 Relationship between current use of contraceptive outcome , religion, ethnicity level and some socio-demographic background characteristics. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Multivariate logistic analysis of effect of principal exposure variables on current contraceptive use by women of reproductive age years in Nigeria.

Table 3 Multivariate logistic analysis of effect of principal exposure variables and some selected characteristics on current contraceptive use by women of reproductive age years in Nigeria.

Summary of Findings This study shows that, in general, the prevalence of current use of contraceptive CUC among women of reproductive age in Nigeria is very low compared to their counterparts in the United States,[ 8 ] Namibia,[ 11 ] and in Ethiopia.

Religion contraceptives teenagers aids

Religion contraceptives teenagers aids

Religion contraceptives teenagers aids