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Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Pages General Survey of Anisakis and Anisakiasis in Japan. Morphology of Anisakine Larvae.

Inhibition of platelet aggregation with prasugrel and clopidogrel: an integrated analysis in subjects. Impact of adjunctive cilostazol therapy versus high maintenance dose of clopidogrel in suboptimal responders with diabetes mellitus. Curr Med Res Opin. The use of the VerifyNow P2Y12 Sano and morooka having sex device to monitor platelet function across a range of P2Y12 inhibition levels following prasugrel Breast fdg protocol clopidogrel administration. Because orf virus is maintained mainly in sheep and goats [ 1729 ], this procedure could also be useful for on-site diagnosis of infection in domestic animals on farms and pastures.

Candid cameo. MATERIALS AND METHODS

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Orf virus infection has been prevalent continuously in the population of wild Japanese serows Capricornis crispus , goat-like grazing cloven-hoofed mammal species that live mainly in mountainous areas of Japan.

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Surgery Today. The present study was conducted to evaluate the current status of rectal carcinoids from multiple systemic aspects, based on extensive information provided by cases cited in international articles published since Each case report was carefully read, computerized, and analyzed by the gut-pancreatic endocrinoma analysis system Niigata Registry.

To avoid case duplication, cases without individual identification, such as the age and sex of the patient, and those with identical clinical and laboratory data and institutes of source, were excluded. Where appropriate, selected cases from an overall gastrointestinal GI series consisting of cases similarly documented in the same Registry were referred to for comparison. The representative characteristics of rectal carcinoids consisted of a male preponderance, small-sized tumors of 10 mm or less at detection, predominant submucosal invasion with a relatively high incidence of metastases, a high incidence of hematogenous spread, a predominant histology of the B-type growth pattern, a low rate of silver reactivity, the infrequent association of carcinoid syndrome, and a relatively high rate of mortality within 5 years after removal of the lesions.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Carcinoids of the rectum: An evaluation of reported cases. Original Articles. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Is aggressive surgery warranted? Soga J Carcinoid tumors: A statistical analysis of a Japanese series of reported and autopsy cases.

Acta Med Biol — Google Scholar. Soga J Carcinoids of the rectum. Tumors of the carcinoid family—Urgut endocrinomas. Sanders RJ Carcinoids of the gastrointestinal tract. Thomas, Springfield Google Scholar.

Year Book, Chicago, pp 4—31 Google Scholar. Beitr Path Anat — Google Scholar. Horn Jr RC Carcinoid tumors of the colon and rectum. Cancer — Google Scholar. An analysis of cases. Cancer — PubMed Google Scholar. Freund SJ Carcinoid tumor of the rectum. A statistical study. Bates Jr HR Carcinoid tumors of the rectum. A statistical review. Soga J, Tazawa K Pathologic analysis of carcinoids. Histologic reevaluation of 62 cases. Personalised recommendations. Cite article How to cite?

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Orf virus infection has been prevalent continuously in the population of wild Japanese serows Capricornis crispus , goat-like grazing cloven-hoofed mammal species that live mainly in mountainous areas of Japan. Currently, definitive diagnosis of infection requires time-consuming laboratory work. To diagnose rapidly on-site, we developed a field-friendly procedure for the detection of orf virus from oral cavity lesions.

DNA was extracted from goat saliva spiked with orf virus as a proxy for Japanese serows by a commercial kit without the use of electricity, and the quality of the extracted DNA was evaluated by conventional polymerase chain reaction PCR.

In sheep and goats, clinical signs of oral lesions of orf virus infection can be confused with those of foot-and-mouth disease FMD , a highly infectious and economically significant viral disease in cloven-hoofed mammal species [ 3 ]. Clinical signs of FMD in sheep and goats are frequently transient and not definitive [ 16 ], and therefore, the differentiation of orf virus infection from FMD is difficult and laboratory confirmation is necessity.

In wild animals in Japan, orf virus infections have been prevalent continuously in the population of Japanese serows Capricornis crispus , goat-like grazing cloven-hoofed mammal species that live mainly in mountainous areas all over Japan, except Hokkaido and Okinawa islands.

The Japanese serow is one of the protected wild animal species as the special natural monument in Japan. When dead or sometimes debilitated serows were found, general information including external measurements, age, sex and so on are recorded. Clinical signs including orf virus infection are also recorded by on-site visual observations in public works as various levels. These information are gathered by local governments and then by the Agency for Cultural Affairs of Japan.

Clinically affected serows are widely spread given the expanse of their habitat [ 4 ]. Wild Japanese serows sometimes appear in cattle and sheep pastures in certain areas [ 4 , 13 ].

These overlapping areas could increase the risk of pathogen transmission from domestic animals to free-ranging serows, and vice versa. It could be also possible to result in host switching of microorganisms including viruses, as previously reported for nematodes in wild animals [ 2 ]. Although there has never been an FMD outbreak in Japanese serows so far and clinical signs of FMD in serows are unknown, it is possible that clinical signs of FMD in serows in some cases may resemble those of orf virus infection.

In that case, it would require definitive diagnosis. Diagnosis of orf virus infection in Japanese serows as well as domestic animals and humans is currently based on laboratory examinations, such as electron microscopic observation of viral particles [ 26 ], immunohistochemical detection of viral antigen [ 25 , 27 ], virus isolation [ 7 , 9 , 12 , 30 ], detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction PCR [ 8 ], and serological tests by agar gel immunodiffusion test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ 10 , 11 ].

Since free-ranging Japanese serows mainly live in mountainous areas, samples for diagnosis must be moved from these areas to laboratories in towns, and it is a time-consuming process.

However, DNA extraction from test samples required the use of laboratory equipment, meaning that LAMP could not be used for complete on-site diagnosis in mountainous areas. Therefore, in the present study, we established an on-site and field-friendly procedure for the detection of orf virus from oral cavity lesions of affected animals. DNA extraction : Instead of oral swabs from Japanese serows, saliva was collected and gathered from 3 healthy goats 2 Shiba and 1 crossbreed in the Yanagido Field Science Center, Gifu University, under anesthesia by xylazine.

As a negative control, DNA was also extracted from goat saliva without adding virus. These three colorimetric indicators are stable for several days in storage at room temperature [ 6 , 24 ] as are the DNA polymerases for LAMP [ 6 , 31 ].

The reaction mixture in each tube was covered with one drop of mineral oil M, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, U. Semi-nested PCR was carried out using the extracted DNA from goat saliva containing serially diluted virus by both kits. DW, distilled water. Next, LAMP assay was carried out. All six orf virus DNA samples were amplified from goat saliva, and no amplifications were observed from negative controls Fig.

From DNA extraction to visual diagnosis, this procedure can be performed on-site within 70 min. The specificity of DNA amplification was confirmed using the same reaction mixtures by measurement of turbidity by real-time turbidimeter data not shown.

HNB, hydroxy naphthol blue. In this study, we established an on-site and field-friendly diagnostic procedure for the detection of orf virus from oral lesions of Japanese serows by LAMP assay using a cordless incubator. The LAMP assay can amplify DNA with high specificity and rapidity under isothermal conditions, unlike PCR that needs two or three different temperatures for enzymatic reaction [ 23 ], and it has been used for the detection of many kinds of pathogens [ 1 , 22 ].

Therefore, the LAMP assay is useful especially for field research, including diagnosis of infectious diseases in wild animals. The kits can be stored at room temperature, and only the template nucleic acid and LAMP primers are required, making for easier handling of the LAMP procedure in the field. However, because the 8-strip tubes of the kit are not suitable for tandem-setting in the heat-block of our cordless incubator, we did not use the kit in this study.

To resolve this problem, we used a Loopamp PURE DNA Extraction Kit that does not need electricity, centrifugation, repeated micropipetting or heating [ 20 ], and a cordless incubator for the enzymatic reaction that is portable and can be maintained at a constant temperature [ 5 ]. Because orf virus is maintained mainly in sheep and goats [ 17 , 29 ], this procedure could also be useful for on-site diagnosis of infection in domestic animals on farms and pastures.

In conclusion, we established an on-site and field-friendly visual diagnostic procedure for the detection of orf virus from oral lesions of Japanese serows. All steps of the procedure can be performed completely in the field DNA extraction, amplification and diagnosis , and therefore, it should be useful for on-site definitive diagnosis and differentiation of orf virus infection from other diseases showing similar clinical signs in domestic and wild animals at farms, pastures or mountainous areas where electricity is not available.

Additionally, by using different LAMP primers, this procedure could be used for on-site diagnosis of other infectious diseases in animals and humans, not only in outdoor environments but also in rural areas and developing countries where electric power and laboratory equipment are not widely available. We thank the members of the Laboratory of Veterinary Reproduction Gifu University for their assistance with collecting saliva from goats.

This study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid No. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Vet Med Sci. Published online Sep Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received May 22; Accepted Sep 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Orf virus infection has been prevalent continuously in the population of wild Japanese serows Capricornis crispus , goat-like grazing cloven-hoofed mammal species that live mainly in mountainous areas of Japan.

Open in a separate window. Acknowledgments We thank the members of the Laboratory of Veterinary Reproduction Gifu University for their assistance with collecting saliva from goats.

Applications of loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification. Hoberg E. Integrated approaches and empirical models for investigation of parasitic diseases in northern wildlife. Hosamani M. Orf: an update on current research and future perspectives. Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Inoshima Y. Parapoxvirus infection in wild Japanese serows Capricornis crispus. On-site visual diagnosis of parapoxvirus infection using a portable cordless incubator.

Evaluating the stability of loop-mediated isothermal amplification reagents at irregular storage temperatures for on-site diagnosis. Spatial and temporal genetic homogeneity of orf viruses infecting Japanese serows Capricornis crispus. Detection and diagnosis of parapoxvirus by the polymerase chain reaction. Methods 84 : — Characterization of parapoxviruses circulating among wild Japanese serows Capricornis crispus. Use of protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening for antibodies against parapoxvirus in wild animals in Japan.

Serological survey of parapoxvirus infection in wild ruminants in Japan in Ito M. Molecular characterization of parapoxviruses from infected wild Japanese serows Capricornis crispus in Ishikawa Prefecture.

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