Paul Chrystal , author of new book In Bed With the Ancient Greeks out now from Amberley , shines a light on sex and sexuality in the ancient world. What do you think this says about the Greeks — and about our own society for relying on just one word? While the Pre-Socratics 6th and 5th centuries and their successors were exercised by the very meaning of life — and love — the Celts, for example, were consumed by matters much less cerebral. Philos denotes love between family or friends, enjoyment of an activity or between lovers. It can describe camaraderie between brothers in arms.
To the ancient Greek mythologisers sexuality, love and sex were inextricably connected Seex the creation of the Earth, the heavens, and the Underworld. Ancient Greek literature is filled with sex, violence and scandal. Antiqhe Greece. Epicurus Pinup sketches, that Epicurus, the one who regarded pleasure as life's central purpose said that "sexual intercourse has never done anyone any good, and we should be content if it does us no actual harm" Epicurus, frg. Alarmed by their power, he separated each one in half: some became lesbians, some became male homosexuals and some became heterosexuals. In the seventh century B. The man took the boy Sex in antique greece into the wilderness, where they spent two months hunting and feasting with friends. The latter could be aborted without having to Sfx about Sex in antique greece or religious reprisals. There were prizes competed for, not only amongst the young men, but also amongst the young girls; the essence Sex in antique greece these dances was to jump and touch the buttocks with the heels.
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Antique black male nude photos gay When Like Dislike Close. Antique porn and free gay japan with black boys Like Dislike Close. Circa BC. In his collection of twelve anecdotes dealing with assaults on chastity, the historian Valerius Maximus features male victims in equal number Sex in antique greece female. Because women were normally portrayed clothed in art, Sex in antique greece breasts can signify vulnerability or erotic availability by choice, accident, or force. The goddess's concern with castitas may have to do with her tutelary function over boundaries, including the transition between life and death, as in the mystery religions. Many Roman literary sources approve of respectable women exercising Massive gay mature cocks passion within marriage. Roman-era Stoics such as Seneca and Musonius Rufusboth active about years after Lucretius, emphasized "sex unity" over the polarity of the sexes. He is also one of the earliest documented deities, known from the texts much older than the Iliad. All rights reserved. In the Imperial era, anxieties about the loss of political liberty and the subordination of the citizen to the emperor were expressed by a perceived increase in passive homosexual behavior among free men, accompanied by a documentable increase in the execution and corporal punishment of citizens. But taut flesh is still in evidence — and whether the beauty on display is still found sexy ultimately lies in the eye of the beholder. Psychology Press. Top New Stories.
The ancient Greeks were never at a loss for words when it came to love and lust — and an exhibition that opened in Athens today laying bare the practice of sex in classical times through an unprecedented collection of eye-popping art partly explains why.
- According to Aristophanes, human beings used to have four arms, four legs, and two sets of genitals, either two male sets, or two female, or one of each.
- Rarely does L.
According to Aristophanes, human beings used to have four arms, four legs, and two sets of genitals, either two male sets, or two female, or one of each. But Zeus split everyone in two, forcing them to wander around on just two legs looking for their other half, with their sexual orientation determined by the genitals of that alter ego they yearned for.
Sex hasn't changed much; we are still on that same quest, and many of the sexual attitudes from two and a half thousand years ago are still around today - but there are also some radical differences. Many Greek philosophers were lukewarm on the subject of sex.
Democritus thought that people derive as much pleasure from scratching themselves as they do from having sex. Aristotle asked "Why are people ashamed to admit that they want to have sexual intercourse, whereas this is not the case with drinking or eating or other such things? Epicurus yes, that Epicurus, the one who regarded pleasure as life's central purpose said that "sexual intercourse has never done anyone any good, and we should be content if it does us no actual harm" Epicurus, frg.
Hippocrates, the father of Western medicine, states that unrestrained intercourse cures dysentery. Sex gives relief to a man bitten by a snake or stung by a scorpion, although it harms the woman who is his partner.
It can even restore sanity. Ancient Greek medical texts also provide many remedies for male impotence: for example, smearing your penis with a mixture of pepper, olive oil, and honey.
If you want to make your penis look especially big, soak the root of a specific but unidentifiable plant in good wine for three days and, when needed, tie it to your thigh. Aristotle thought size mattered, but not how you might think: the longer a man's penis, the farther his semen has to travel and the greater the chance that he will be unable to father children. The images that follow present just a few of these sexual curiosities in Ancient Greece - sometimes satirical, sometimes familiar, and often strange.
Antique gay male porn free movies sex Hey wassup dudes this week we got a Like Dislike Close. Sex and love were major themes in classical art, as they remain today. Nude antique youngsters wanking off and extraordinary goth jizz fag The dude is already bound down to Like Dislike Close. Main article: Prostitution in ancient Rome. In a few works, Hermaphroditus is strong enough to ward off his would-be attacker, but in others he shows his willingness to engage in sex, even if the satyr seems no longer inclined: .
Sex in antique greece. Free Gay Porn
In Roman law, raptus or raptio meant primarily kidnapping or abduction;  the mythological "rape" of the Sabine women is a form of bride abduction in which sexual violation is a secondary issue.
Before the word "rape" acquired its modern strictly sexual meaning, the verb meant simply to seize something or someone by force; this usage persisted at least into the early 19th century.
The "abduction" of an unmarried girl from her father's household in some circumstances was a matter of the couple eloping without her father's permission to marry. As laws pertaining to violence were codified toward the end of the Republic, raptus ad stuprum , "abduction for the purpose of committing a sex crime", emerged as a legal distinction. Divine aid might be sought in private religious rituals along with medical treatments to enhance or block fertility, or to cure diseases of the reproductive organs.
Votive offerings vota ; compare ex-voto in the form of breasts and penises have been found at healing sanctuaries. Aphrodisiacs , anaphrodisiacs , contraceptives , and abortifacients are preserved by both medical handbooks and magic texts; potions can be difficult to distinguish from pharmacology. Keep the tail closed up in the palm of the same hand until it dies and touch the woman and her private parts when you have intercourse with her. Its root, pounded to a paste and drunk in vinegar for ten consecutive days, has the astonishing effect of turning a boy into a eunuch.
If the spermatic veins of an immature boy should become enlarged, split a young cherry-tree down the middle to its roots while leaving it standing, in such a way that the boy can be passed through the cleft. The speed with which the sapling grows together and its scar forms will determine how quickly the swollen veins of the boy will return to health.
Marcellus also records which herbs  could be used to induce menstruation , or to purge the womb after childbirth or abortion; these herbs include potential abortifacients and may have been used as such.
Ancient theories of sexuality were produced by and for an educated elite. The extent to which theorizing about sex actually affected behavior is debatable, even among those who were attentive to the philosophical and medical writings that presented such views.
This elite discourse, while often deliberately critical of common or typical behaviors, at the same time cannot be assumed to exclude values broadly held within the society. Lucretius , De rerum natura 4. Yeats , describing the translation by Dryden , called it "the finest description of sexual intercourse ever written. His didactic poem De rerum natura is a presentation of Epicurean philosophy within the Ennian tradition of Latin poetry.
Epicureanism is both materialist and hedonic. The highest good is pleasure, defined as the absence of physical pain and emotional distress. Desires are ranked as those that are both natural and necessary, such as hunger and thirst; those that are natural but unnecessary, such as sex; and those that are neither natural nor necessary, including the desire to rule over others and glorify oneself.
Lucretius treats male desire, female sexual pleasure, heredity, and infertility as aspects of sexual physiology. In the Epicurean view, sexuality arises from impersonal physical causes without divine or supernatural influence. The onset of physical maturity generates semen, and wet dreams occur as the sexual instinct develops.
The engorgement of the genitals creates an urge to ejaculate, coupled with the anticipation of pleasure. The body's response to physical attractiveness is automatic, and neither the character of the person desired nor one's own choice is a factor.
With a combination of scientific detachment and ironic humor, Lucretius treats the human sex drive as muta cupido , "dumb desire", comparing the physiological response of ejaculation to the blood spurting from a wound. Lucretius thus expresses an Epicurean ambivalence toward sexuality, which threatens one's peace of mind with agitation if desire becomes a form of bondage and torment,  but his view of female sexuality is less negative. Having analyzed the sex act, Lucretius then considers conception and what in modern terms would be called genetics.
Both man and woman, he says, produce genital fluids that mingle in a successful procreative act. The characteristics of the child are formed by the relative proportions of the mother's "seed" to the father's.
Lucretius' purpose is to correct ignorance and to give the knowledge necessary for managing one's sex life rationally. In early Stoicism among the Greeks , sex was regarded as a good , if enjoyed between people who maintained the principles of respect and friendship; in the ideal society, sex should be enjoyed freely, without bonds of marriage that treated the partner as property. Some Greek Stoics privileged same-sex relations between a man and a younger male partner   see " Pederasty in ancient Greece ".
However, stoics in the Roman Imperial era departed from the view of human beings as "communally sexual animals"  and emphasized sex within marriage,  which as an institution helped sustain social order. Roman-era Stoics such as Seneca and Musonius Rufus , both active about years after Lucretius, emphasized "sex unity" over the polarity of the sexes.
Dimorphism exists, according to Musonius, simply to create difference, and difference in turn creates the desire for a complementary relationship, that is, a couple who will bond for life for the sake of each other and for their children. Both Musonius and Seneca criticized the double standard , cultural and legal, that granted Roman men greater sexual freedom than women. The argument, then, is not that sexual freedom is a human good, but that men as well as women should exercise sexual restraint.
Musonius disapproved of same-sex relations because they lacked a procreative purpose. Although Seneca is known primarily as a Stoic philosopher, he draws on Neopythagoreanism for his views on sexual austerity. The only justification for sex is reproduction within marriage. The philosophical view of the body as a corpse that carries around the soul  could result in outright contempt for sexuality: the emperor and Stoic philosopher Marcus Aurelius writes, "as for sexual intercourse, it is the friction of a piece of gut and, following a sort of convulsion, the expulsion of some mucus".
Stoic sexual ethics are grounded in their physics and cosmology. The elements derive from the semina , "seeds," that are generated by heaven; "love" brings together the elements in the act of creation, like the sexual union of male and female. During the Republic, a Roman citizen's political liberty libertas was defined in part by the right to preserve his body from physical compulsion, including both corporal punishment and sexual abuse.
It was expected and socially acceptable for a freeborn Roman man to want sex with both female and male partners, as long as he took the dominating role. In the Imperial era, anxieties about the loss of political liberty and the subordination of the citizen to the emperor were expressed by a perceived increase in passive homosexual behavior among free men, accompanied by a documentable increase in the execution and corporal punishment of citizens.
The poet Ennius ca. The toga , by contrast, distinguished the body of the sexually privileged adult Roman male. Public nudity might be offensive or distasteful even in traditional settings; Cicero derides Mark Antony as undignified for appearing near-naked as a participant in the Lupercalia , even though it was ritually required.
Negative connotations of nudity include defeat in war, since captives were stripped, and slavery, since slaves for sale were often displayed naked. The disapproval of nudity was thus less a matter of trying to suppress inappropriate sexual desire than of dignifying and marking the citizen's body. When statues of Roman generals nude in the manner of Hellenistic kings first began to be displayed, they were shocking not simply because they exposed the male figure, but because they evoked concepts of royalty and divinity that were contrary to Republican ideals of citizenship as embodied by the toga.
One exception to public nudity was the baths , though attitudes toward nude bathing also changed over time. In the 2nd century BC, Cato preferred not to bathe in the presence of his son, and Plutarch implies that for Romans of these earlier times it was considered shameful for mature men to expose their bodies to younger males.
Roman sexuality as framed by Latin literature has been described as phallocentric. It was used as an amulet fascinum , many examples of which survive, particularly in the form of wind chimes tintinnabula. The outsized phallus of Roman art was associated with the god Priapus , among others. It was laughter-provoking, grotesque, or used for magical purposes.
The poetry collection called the Priapea deals with phallic sexuality, including poems spoken in the person of Priapus. In one, for instance, Priapus threatens anal rape against any potential thief. The wrath of Priapus might cause impotence, or a state of perpetual arousal with no means of release: one curse of Priapus upon a thief was that he might lack women or boys to relieve him of his erection, and burst.
Verpa , by contrast, was "an emotive and highly offensive word" for the penis with its foreskin drawn back, as the result of an erection, excessive sexual activity, or circumcision.
The penis might also be referred to as the "vein" vena , "tail" penis or cauda , or "tendon" nervus. Later, penis becomes the standard word in polite Latin, as used for example by the scholiast to Juvenal and by Arnobius , but did not pass into usage among the Romance languages.
The apparent connection between Latin testes , "testicles," and testis , plural testes , "witness" the origin of English "testify" and "testimony"  may lie in archaic ritual. Some ancient Mediterranean cultures swore binding oaths upon the male genitalia, symbolizing that "the bearing of false witness brings a curse upon not only oneself, but one's house and future line".
To Romans, castration and circumcision were linked as barbaric mutilations of the male genitalia. Some Romans kept beautiful male slaves as deliciae or delicati "toys, delights" who were sometimes castrated in an effort to preserve the androgynous looks of their youth. The emperor Nero had his freedman Sporus castrated, and married him in a public ceremony. By the end of the 1st century AD, bans against castration had been enacted by the emperors Domitian and Nerva in the face of a burgeoning trade in eunuch slaves.
A surgical procedure epispasm existed to restore the foreskin and cover the glans "for the sake of decorum". Of these, some had themselves circumcised again later. Too-frequent ejaculation was thought to weaken men. It is not at all surprising that those who are less moderate sexually turn out to be weaker, since the whole body loses the purest part of both substances, and there is besides an accession of pleasure, which by itself is enough to dissolve the vital tone, so that before now some persons have died from excess of pleasure.
The uncontrolled dispersing of pneuma in semen could lead to loss of physical vigor, mental acuity, masculinity, and a strong manly voice,  a complaint registered also in the Priapea. Pliny reports that:. When plates of lead are bound to the area of the loins and kidneys, it is used, owing to its rather cooling nature, to check the attacks of sexual desire and sexual dreams in one's sleep that cause spontaneous eruptions to the point of becoming a sort of disease.
With these plates the orator Calvus is reported to have restrained himself and to have preserved his body's strength for the labor of his studies.
Lead plates, cupping therapy , and hair removal were prescribed for three sexual disorders thought to be related to nocturnal emissions: satyriasis, or hypersexuality ; priapism , a chronic erection without an accompanying desire for sex; and the involuntary discharge of semen seminis lapsus or seminis effusio. Effeminacy was a favorite accusation in Roman political invective, and was aimed particularly at populares , the politicians of the faction who represented themselves as champions of the people, sometimes called Rome's "democratic" party in contrast to the optimates , a conservative elite of nobles.
The rites were held at a senior magistrate 's home, in this year that of Julius Caesar, nearing the end of his term as praetor and only recently invested as Pontifex Maximus. Clodius disguised himself as a female musician to gain entrance, as described in a "verbal striptease" by Cicero, who prosecuted him for sacrilege incestum : .
Take away his saffron dress, his tiara, his girly shoes and purple laces, his bra, his Greek harp , take away his shameless behavior and his sex crime, and Clodius is suddenly revealed as a democrat.
The actions of Clodius, who had just been elected quaestor and was probably about to turn thirty, are often regarded as a last juvenile prank.
The all-female nature of these nocturnal rites attracted much prurient speculation from men; they were fantasized as drunken lesbian orgies that might be fun to watch.
The scandal prompted Caesar to seek an immediate divorce to control the damage to his own reputation, giving rise to the famous line "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion".
The incident "summed up the disorder of the final years of the republic". In addition to political invective, cross-dressing appears in Roman literature and art as a mythological trope as in the story of Hercules and Omphale exchanging roles and attire ,  religious investiture , and rarely or ambiguously as transvestic fetishism.
A section of the Digest by Ulpian  categorizes Roman clothing on the basis of who may appropriately wear it; a man who wore women's clothes, Ulpian notes, would risk making himself the object of scorn. They are sometimes considered a transgender priesthood, since they were required to be castrated in imitation of Attis. The complexities of gender identity in the religion of Cybele and the Attis myth are explored by Catullus in one of his longest poems, Carmen Roman men were free to have sex with males of lower status without a perceived loss of masculinity, or even as an enhancement of it.
Those who took the receiving role in sex acts, sometimes referred to as the "passive" or "submissive" role, were disparaged as weak and effeminate, regardless of the sex of their partner see the section below on cunnilungus and fellatio ,  while having sex with males in the active position was proof of one's masculinity. Laws such as the poorly understood Lex Scantinia and various pieces of Augustan moral legislation were meant to restrict same-sex activity among freeborn males, viewed as threatening a man's status and independence as a citizen.
Latin had such a wealth of words for men outside the masculine norm that some scholars  argue for the existence of a homosexual subculture at Rome; that is, although the noun "homosexual" has no straightforward equivalent in Latin, literary sources reveal a pattern of behaviors among a minority of free men that indicate same-sex preference or orientation.
Some terms, such as exoletus , specifically refer to an adult; Romans who were socially marked as "masculine" did not confine their same-sex penetration of male prostitutes or slaves to those who were "boys" under the age of And some older men may have at times preferred the passive role with a same age or younger partner, though this was socially frowned upon.
Homoerotic Latin literature includes the "Juventius" poems of Catullus ,  elegies by Tibullus  and Propertius ,  the second Eclogue of Vergil , and several poems by Horace. Lucretius addresses the love of boys in De rerum natura 4. The poet Martial , despite being married to a woman, often derides women as sexual partners, and celebrates the charms of pueri boys. Although Roman law did not recognize marriage between men, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites.
Same-sex weddings are reported by sources that mock them; the feelings of the participants are not recorded. Apart from measures to protect the liberty of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century when male prostitution was banned by Philip the Arab. By the end of the 4th century, passive homosexuality under the Christian Empire was punishable by burning.
Men who had been raped were exempt from the loss of legal or social standing infamia suffered by males who prostituted themselves or willingly took the receiving role in sex.
Roman law addressed the rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, when a ruling was issued in a case that may have involved a male of same-sex orientation. Although a man who had worked as a prostitute could not be raped as a matter of law, it was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable famosus and questionable suspiciosus " had the same right as other free men not to have his body subjected to forced sex. In his collection of twelve anecdotes dealing with assaults on chastity, the historian Valerius Maximus features male victims in equal number to female.
The Roman soldier, like any free and respectable Roman male of status, was expected to show self-discipline in matters of sex. Soldiers convicted of adultery were given a dishonorable discharge ; convicted adulterers were barred from enlisting. Strict commanders might ban prostitutes and pimps from camp,  though in general the Roman army , whether on the march or at a permanent fort castrum , was attended by a number of camp followers who might include prostitutes.
In the early period, Rome had an army of citizens who left their families and took up arms as the need arose. During the expansionism of the Middle Republic , Rome began acquiring vast territories to be defended as provinces, and during the time of Gaius Marius d.
The marriage ban applied to all ranks up to the centurionate ; men of the governing classes were exempt. Although legally these unions could not be formalized as marriages, their value in providing emotional support for the soldiers was recognized. After a soldier was discharged, the couple were granted the right of legal marriage as citizens conubium , and any children they already had were considered to have been born to citizens. Other forms of sexual gratification available to soldiers were the use of male slaves , war rape , and same-sex relations.
Polybius 2nd century BC reports that same-sex activity in the military was punishable by the fustuarium , clubbing to death. A soldier maintained his masculinity by not allowing his body to be used for sexual purposes. Sexual integrity helped distinguish the status of the soldier, who otherwise sacrificed a great deal of his civilian autonomy, from that of the slave.
An incident related by Plutarch in his biography of Marius illustrates the soldier's right to maintain his sexual integrity. A good-looking young recruit named Trebonius  had been sexually harassed over a period of time by his superior officer, who happened to be Marius's nephew, Gaius Luscius.
One night, having fended off unwanted advances on numerous occasions, Trebonius was summoned to Luscius's tent. Unable to disobey the command of his superior, he found himself the object of a sexual assault and drew his sword, killing Luscius. A conviction for killing an officer typically resulted in execution.
When brought to trial, he was able to produce witnesses to show that he had repeatedly had to fend off Luscius, and "had never prostituted his body to anyone, despite offers of expensive gifts". Marius not only acquitted Trebonius in the killing of his kinsman, but gave him a crown for bravery. During wartime, the violent use of war captives for sex was not considered criminal rape.
Mass rape occurred in some circumstances, and is likely to be underreported in the surviving sources, but was not a deliberate or pervasive strategy for controlling a population. In territories and provinces brought under treaty with Rome, soldiers who committed rape against the local people might be subjected to harsher punishments than civilians. Because of the Roman emphasis on family, female sexuality was regarded as one of the bases for social order and prosperity.
Female citizens were expected to exercise their sexuality within marriage, and were honored for their sexual integrity pudicitia and fecundity: Augustus granted special honors and privileges to women who had given birth to three children see " Ius trium liberorum ".
As was the case for men, free women who displayed themselves sexually, such as prostitutes and performers, or who made themselves available indiscriminately were excluded from legal protections and social respectability. Many Roman literary sources approve of respectable women exercising sexual passion within marriage. Roman attitudes toward female nudity differed from but were influenced by those of the Greeks, who idealized the male body in the nude while portraying respectable women clothed.
Partial nudity of goddesses in Roman Imperial art, however, can highlight the breasts as dignified but pleasurable images of nurturing, abundance, and peacefulness. In the real world as described in literature, prostitutes sometimes displayed themselves naked at the entrance to their brothel cubicles, or wore see-through silk garments; slaves for sale were often displayed naked to allow buyers to inspect them for defects, and to symbolize that they lacked the right to control their own body.
Naked she stood on the shore, at the pleasure of the purchaser; every part of her body was examined and felt. Would you hear the result of the sale? The pirate sold; the pimp bought, that he might employ her as a prostitute.
The display of the female body made it vulnerable. Varro said sight was the greatest of the senses, because while the others were limited by proximity, sight could penetrate even to the stars; he thought the Latin word for "sight, gaze ", visus , was etymologically related to vis , "force, power". But the connection between visus and vis , he said, also implied the potential for violation , just as Actaeon gazing on the naked Diana violated the goddess.
The "basic obscenity" for the female genitalia is cunnus , " cunt ", though perhaps not as strongly offensive as the English. Varro connects this usage of the word to the sacrifice of a pig to the goddess Ceres in preliminary wedding rites. Although women's genitals appear often in invective and satiric verse as objects of disgust, they are rarely referred to in Latin love elegy.
The function of the clitoris landica was "well understood". Latin lacked a standard word for labia ;  two terms found in medical writers are orae , "edges" or "shores",  and pinnacula , "little wings". Vulva seems originally to have referred to the womb of animals, but is "extremely common" in Pliny's Natural History for a human uterus. Both women and men often removed their pubic hair,  but grooming may have varied over time and by individual preference.
A fragment from the early satirist Lucilius refers to penetrating a "hairy bag",  and a graffito from Pompeii declares that "a hairy cunt is fucked much better than one which is smooth; it's steamy and wants cock".
At the entrance to a caldarium in the bath complex of the House of Menander at Pompeii, an unusual graphic device appears on a mosaic: a phallic oil can is surrounded by strigils in the shape of female genitalia, juxtaposed with an "Ethiopian" water-bearer who has an "unusually large and comically detailed" penis. Latin words for "breasts" include mammae cf. The breasts of a beautiful woman were supposed to be "unobtrusive. While Greek epigrams describe ideal breasts,  Latin poets take limited interest in them, at least as compared to the modern focus on admiring and fondling a woman's breasts.
Because all infants were breastfed in antiquity, the breast was viewed primarily as an emblem of nurturing and of motherhood. Wrapping one's head in a bra was said to cure a headache. Baring the breasts is one of the gestures made by women, particularly mothers or nurses, to express mourning or as an appeal for mercy. Because women were normally portrayed clothed in art, bared breasts can signify vulnerability or erotic availability by choice, accident, or force.
Baring a single breast was a visual motif of Classical Greek sculpture , where among other situations, including seductions,  it often represented impending physical violence or rape. The erogenous power of the breast was not utterly neglected: in comparing sex with a woman to sex with a boy, a Greek novel of the Roman Imperial era notes that "her breast when it is caressed provides its own particular pleasure".
Greek words for a woman who prefers sex with another woman include hetairistria compare hetaira , "courtesan" or "companion" , tribas plural tribades , and Lesbia ; Latin words include the loanword tribas , fricatrix "she who rubs" , and virago.
Ovid, who advocates generally for a heterosexual lifestyle, finds it "a desire known to no one, freakish, novel I wish I could hold to my neck and embrace the little arms, and bear kisses on the tender lips. Go on, doll, and trust your joys to the winds; believe me, light is the nature of men. An early reference to same-sex relations among women as "lesbianism" is found in Lucian 2nd century AD : "They say there are women like that in Lesbos, masculine-looking, but they don't want to give it up for men.
Instead, they consort with women, just like men. Since Romans thought a sex act required an active or dominant partner who was "phallic" see "Phallic sexuality" above , male writers imagined that in lesbian sex one of the women would use a dildo or have an exceptionally large clitoris for penetration, and that she would be the one experiencing pleasure.
The rape of women is a pervasive theme in the myths and legends of early Rome. The overthrow of the Roman monarchy and the establishment of the Republic was precipitated by the rape of the much-admired Lucretia by Sextus Tarquinius , the king's son. The legend crystallizes the Roman view of unchecked libido as a form of tyranny. The Augustan historian Livy seems "embarrassed" by the rape motif of early Roman history, and emphasizes the redeeming political dimension of these events.
Roman law recognized rape as a crime: the rape victim was not guilty of anything. Since emancipated women were allowed to bring criminal prosecutions in the Republic,  it is conceivable that a rape victim could have brought charges against her rapist herself.
Otherwise, the case could be prosecuted by her father or husband, or by anyone who saw fit to do so. There was no statute of limitations for rape; by contrast adultery , which was criminalized under Augustus , had to be prosecuted within five years. As a matter of law, rape could be committed only against a citizen in good standing. A woman who worked as a prostitute or entertainer lost her social standing and became infamis ; by making her body publicly available, she had in effect surrendered her right to be protected from sexual abuse or physical violence.
If rape against a married woman could not be proven, the Augustan legislation criminalizing adultery would make the man liable to a charge of adulterium , criminal adultery, though a charge of either adultery or stuprum without force would implicate the woman as well. Attitudes toward rape changed when the Empire became Christianized. Augustine interpreted Lucretia's suicide as a possible admission that she had secretly encouraged the rapist, [n 7] and Christian apologists regarded her as having committed the sin of involuntary sexual pleasure.
The word raptus thus could refer to a successful seduction as well as abduction or rape. If the girl consented, Constantine ordered that she be punished along with the male "abductor" by being burnt alive.
If she had not consented, she was still considered an accomplice, "on the grounds that she could have saved herself by screaming for help". In the Republic and the pre-Christian Empire, the consequences of an abduction or an elopement had been up to the couple and their families. Both male and female freeborn children wore the toga praetexta , a purple-bordered garment that marked its wearer as having "inviolable" status. Freeborn Roman boys also wore an apotropaic amulet called the bulla which incorporated a phallic talisman fascinum inside a locket of gold, silver, or bronze, or in a leather pouch.
There were laws protecting freeborn children from sexual predators ,   and the rape of a freeborn boy was a capital crime; this severity was directed at protecting the integrity of the young citizen. Quintilian regards this misbehavior as a sign of general moral decline. Protections applied only to freeborn children, not those born to slaves, sold into slavery, or taken captive in war.
The social acceptance of pederasty among the Romans was focused on the exploitation of young male slaves or prostitutes by men of the upper classes. Adolescents in ritual preparation to transition to adult status wore the tunica recta , the "upright tunic", so called because it was woven ritually on the type of upright loom that was the earliest used by Romans.
The puberty ritual for the young male involved shaving his first beard and taking off his bulla , which he dedicated to the household gods, the Lares. Roman women were expected to remain virgins until marriage; the higher a girl's social rank, the earlier she was likely to become betrothed and married. Weddings were often postponed until the girl was considered mature enough.
The wedding ceremony was in part a rite of passage for the bride, as Rome lacked the elaborate female puberty rituals of ancient Greece. The confining of her hair signified the harnessing of her sexuality within marriage. Her weaving of the tunica recta and the hairnet demonstrated her skill and her capacity for acting in the traditional matron's role as custos domi , "guardian of the house". Because men could enjoy sexual relations outside marriage with relative impunity, it has sometimes been assumed that satisfying sex was not an expectation of Roman marriage.
Sexual intimacy between a married couple was a private matter, and not usually the subject of literature. A wedding hymn by Catullus, for instance, praises the love goddess Venus because "nothing is possible without you". I am seized by an unbelievable longing for you.
The reason is above all my love, but secondarily the fact that we are not used to being apart. This is why I spend the greater part of the night haunted by your image; this is why from time to time my feet lead me the right expression!
Pliny adopts the rhetoric of love poetry, conventionally directed at an illicit or hard-to-attain lover, as appropriate for expressing his wedded desire. Although it was a point of pride for a woman to be univira , married only once,  there was no stigma attached to divorce.
Speedy remarriage after divorce or the death of a spouse was common and even expected among the Roman elite, since marriage was considered right and natural for adults.
While having children was a primary goal of marriage, other social and familial bonds were enhanced, not excluding personal companionship and sexual pleasure between husband and wife, as indicated by marriages involving women past their childbearing years.
The Trojan royal couple Hector and Andromache became a mythological trope of wedded sex. Latin love elegy focuses on their sex life rather than the tragic end of their marriage with Hector's death at the hands of Achilles.
An epithalamium by Catullus  paints the wedding night as a time of ripe eroticism, spiced with humorous and bawdy songs from the guests. The husband is reminded that "good Venus" has blessed him, since he can now desire openly what he desires, and need not conceal a "good love". The couple is encouraged to enjoy themselves as they please ludite ut lubet ; the goal is to produce children soon.
A pair of paintings in a bedroom of the Casa della Farnesina has been interpreted as "a narrative of the modest bride becoming the immodest lover—perhaps fulfilling a ribald male fantasy". Some literary passages suggest that a newlywed might break off his outside sexual relations for a time and focus on bonding with his wife in the hope of starting a family.
Legally, however, a Roman husband did not commit adultery when he had sex outside marriage as long as his partner was considered sexually available; sexual misconduct stuprum was adultery depending on the status of a female partner.
A character in a play by Plautus expresses a man's sexual freedom in comic terms:. No one prohibits anyone from going down the public way publica via ; as long as you do not make a path through posted land , as long as you hold off from brides, single women, maidens, the youth and free boys, love whatever you want. A married or marriageable woman and young male citizens are off-limits, just as if they were the property of someone else,  and in fact adultery as a crime was committed contrary to the rights of the paterfamilias to control his household.
For a married woman, no infidelity was acceptable, and first-time brides were expected to be virgins. Following the collapse of the Republic , moral legislation became part of the new political order under Rome's first emperor, Augustus. The appeal to old-fashioned values cloaked the radical overthrow of the Republic's participatory political institutions by top-down, one-man rule. Scholars have often assumed that the Lex Iulia was meant to address a virulent outbreak of adultery in the Late Republic.
An androcentric perspective in the early 20th century held that the Lex Iulia had been "a very necessary check upon the growing independence and recklessness of women". Personal anxieties about infidelity, within marriage or not, are reflected in magic spells intended to "fix" defixiones or bind the other person's erotic attachment.
One magical papyrus from Roman Egypt recommends placing the heart of a hoopoe on a sleeping woman's genitals to induce truthful answers; another says that the tongue of a hen placed on her lips or breast will cause her to reveal the name of the man she loves. Literature of the Late Republic and Principate , particularly the satires of Horace and Juvenal , offer various depictions, or perhaps fantasies, of how a wronged husband might subject his wife's lover to humiliation and punishment.
In these literary treatments, the adulterer is castrated, beaten, raped by the husband himself or his slaves, or penetrated anally with a mullet , a type of prized fish cultivated by elite Romans as a leisure activity otium. References to such acts do not appear in the letters of Cicero nor the histories of Tacitus , and may be fictional exaggerations. The cultivation of a laissez-faire attitude as a sign of urbanity may have prompted the provision of Augustus's adultery law that required a husband to divorce his wife and bring formal legal charges against her, or face charges himself for pimping lenocinium.
Sexuality was a "core feature" of ancient Roman slavery. In this situation why on earth should he refrain from sodomising his houseboys? A Roman could exploit his own slaves for sex, but was not entitled to compel any enslaved person he chose to have sex, since the owner had the right to control his own property. A slave's sexuality was closely controlled. Slaves had no right to legal marriage conubium , though they could live together as husband and wife contubernales.
An owner usually restricted the heterosexual activities of his male slaves to females he also owned; any children born from these unions added to his wealth. If an owner found that his male slave was having a sexual relationship with a free woman, the law required that he warn the couple three times to break it off.
If the affair continued, he had the right to take ownership of the woman. Not even Messalina or Sallust 's Sempronia is accused in the hostile sources of having sex with a slave. Despite the external controls and restrictions placed on a slave's sexuality, Roman art and literature perversely often portray slaves as lascivious, voyeuristic, and even sexually knowing. Freeborn Romans who fell into slavery were supposed to be protected from sexual exploitation, as indicated by two different stories recorded by ancient historians.
According to Livy , debt slavery nexum was abolished as a direct result of the attempted sexual abuse of a freeborn youth who served as surety for his father's debt  with the usurer Lucius Papirius. The boy, Gaius Publilius, was notably beautiful, and Papirius insisted that as a bond slave he was required to provide sexual services.
When Publilius refused, Papirius had him stripped and whipped. The youth then took to the streets to display his injuries, and an outcry among the people led the consuls to convene the senate. The law thus established that the integrity of a Roman citizen's body was fundamental to the concept of libertas , political liberty, in contrast to the uses to which a slave's body was subject.
Some sexual protections could be extended to slaves. The conduct of slaves reflected generally on the respectability of the household, and the materfamilias in particular was judged by her female slaves' sexual behavior, which was expected to be moral or at least discreet.
This decorum may have limited the exploitation of female slaves that were part of the familia. Although concern for the slave's welfare may have been a factor in individual cases, this legal restriction seems also to have been intended to shield the male citizen owner from the shame or infamia associated with pimping and prostitution.
The ne serva covenant remained in force for subsequent sales, even if the buyer was initially unaware of it, and if it was violated, the illegally prostituted slave was granted freedom. Prostitution was legal throughout the Roman Empire in all periods. Prostitutes in Rome had to register with the aediles. Despite what might seem to be a clear distinction as a matter of law, the jurist Ulpian opined that an openly promiscuous woman brought the status of prostitute upon herself, even if she accepted no money.
Encouraged to think of adultery as a matter of law rather than morality, a few socially prominent women even chose to avoid prosecution for adultery by registering themselves as prostitutes. Obstacles to love arise when a young man falls in love with, and wishes to marry, a non-citizen prostitute, and are overcome when the young woman's true status as a freeborn virgin is revealed.
The well-brought-up freeborn virgin is marriageable, and the non-citizen prostitute is not. Prostitutes appear in erotic art in Pompeii and Herculaneum , including wall paintings from buildings identified as brothels, in which they are often nude except for a strapless bra strophium. The paintings illustrate various sexual positions that contradict some scholarly claims about the preferences of Roman men in heterosexual acts.
They were the only Roman women who wore the toga , the distinctive dress of a free Roman male. This crossing of gender boundaries has been interpreted variously. Prostitutes were among those persons in Rome categorized as infames , enjoying few legal protections even if they were technically not slaves. In the Roman moral tradition, pleasure voluptas was a dubious pursuit.
The Stoic moralist Seneca contrasts pleasure with virtue virtus :. Roman ambivalence toward physical pleasure is expressed by the infamia of those whose bodies provided it publicly. They served the pleasure of others. They were tarnished by exposure to the public gaze. Those labeled infames singular infamis were liable to corporal punishment, usually reserved for slaves. Actors were sexually ambiguous, in part because they could imitate women,   and were attractive to both men and women.
The dictator Sulla had a long-term affair with an actor;  Maecenas , the arts patron and advisor to Augustus , was in love with an actor named Bathyllus ;  and women of the Imperial family are alleged to have had affairs with actors. A man who enjoyed receiving anal sex or providing oral sex, often characterized as a cinaedus , might also be stigmatized as infamis , though if he was a citizen he could retain his legal standing. It can even restore sanity. Ancient Greek medical texts also provide many remedies for male impotence: for example, smearing your penis with a mixture of pepper, olive oil, and honey.
If you want to make your penis look especially big, soak the root of a specific but unidentifiable plant in good wine for three days and, when needed, tie it to your thigh. Aristotle thought size mattered, but not how you might think: the longer a man's penis, the farther his semen has to travel and the greater the chance that he will be unable to father children.
The images that follow present just a few of these sexual curiosities in Ancient Greece - sometimes satirical, sometimes familiar, and often strange. US Edition U. News U. HuffPost Personal Video Horoscopes. Newsletters Coupons.
The truth about sex in ancient Greece
The Greeks gave sexual matters a fair amount of attention. Men raised monuments to their genitalia and had sex with the sons of their friends.
Some had slave lovers. Naughty images were featured on vases and drinking cups. Sexual themes were common in Greek drama and actors routinely wore conspicuously short costumes with massive woolen phalluses hanging out the bottom. The word "ecstacy comes from the Greek word ekstasis , which means to "stand forth naked. The Greek gods realized that sex was the driving force behind all things. Hippocrates was one of the first to advise men to preserve their semen to boost vitality.
The Greek poet Hero wrote in the 4th century B. The Greeks believed that the root of purple-flowered mandrake was an aphrodisiac. The root is shaped like a pair of human legs.
The Romans and Greeks regarded garlic and leeks as aphrodisiacs. Truffles, artichokes and oysters were also associated with sexuality. Anise-tasting fennel was popular with Greeks who thought it made a man strong. Romans thought it improved eyesight. Ray Tannahill wrote in the History of Sex : "Masturbation, to the Greeks, was not a vice but a safety valve, and there are numerous literary references to it Miletus, a wealthy commercial city on the coast of Asia Minor, was the manufacturing and exporting center of what the Greeks called the olisbos , and later generations, less euphoniously, the dildo The imitation penis appears in Greek times to have been made either of wood or pressed leather and had to be liberally anointed with olive oil before use Among the literary relics of the third century B.
Coritto, unfortunately, his lent it to someone else, who has in turn lent it to another friend. For women sex was used as a form of power. The strike paralyzes the city and the women seize the Acropolis and the treasure of the Parthenon. Categories with related articles in this website: Ancient Greek History 48 articles factsanddetails. Martins Press, Greek pilgrims are said to have visited a temple in Corinth dedicated to Aphrodite and cavorted with prostitute-priestesses there.
Strabo wrote in 2 B. Many people visited the town on account of them, and thus these hetairas contributed to the riches of the town: for the ship captains frivolously spent their money there, hence the saying: 'The voyage to Corinth is not for every man'. The story goes of a hetaira being reproached by a woman for not loving her job and not touching wool, and answering her: 'However you may behold me, yet in this short time I have already taken down three pieces'.
The Greek creation story emphasizes the creation of gods not the creation of the Earth and has a lot of sex in it. The Greeks believed that love and sex existed at the beginning of creation along with the Earth, the heavens, and the Underworld.
Chaos, apparently the first Greek celestial being, was a goddess who beget "Gaia, the broad-breasted" and "Eros, the fairest of the deathless gods. These two offspring mated and gave birth to Ether and Day. They in turn gave birth to the Titans. The Titans existed before the gods. They were the sons of the heaven and earth.
Cronus , the father of Zeus was one of the Titans. Aphrodite arose from the discarded genitals. The god's lovemaking positions were also a little weird. Tartarus, the goddess of the Underworld , made love with Typhoeus while he was one her shoulders with his hundred snake heads "licking black tongues darting forth.
Ancient Greek literature is filled with sex, violence and scandal. Greek dramas often featured liberal use actors of with giant phalluses and references to homosexuality. In Clouds Aristophanes wrote: "How to be modest, sitting so as not to expose his crotch, smoothing out the sand when he arose so that the impress of his buttocks would not be visible, and how to be strong The emphasis was on beauty A beautiful boy is a good boy.
Education is bound up with male love, an idea that is part of the pro-Spartan ideology of Athens A youth who is inspired by his love of an older male will attempt to emulate him, the heart of educational experience.
The older male in his desire of the beauty of the youth will do whatever he can improve it. In Aristophanes's The Birds , one older man says to another with disgust: "Well, this is a fine state of affairs, you demanded desperado! You meet my son just as he comes out of the gymnasium, all rise from the bath, and don't kiss him, you don't say a word to him, you don't hug him, you don't feel his balls!
And you're supposed to be a friend of ours! Many of the great thinkers of love acknowledged its mortality. Aristotle said that love between two people should end if they are no longer alike in their virtues.
Courtship scene Some scholars claim that the idea of love began with the Greeks and the notion of romantic love began with chivalry in the Middle Ages. The ancient Greek poet Nimnerus wrote: "What is life, what is joy without golden Aphrodite? According to one myth, Zeus originally created three sexes: men, women and hermaphrodites. The hermaphrodites had two heads, two set of arms and two sets of genitals. Alarmed by their power, he separated each one in half: some became lesbians, some became male homosexuals and some became heterosexuals.
Each felt incomplete and spent his or her life trying to track his or her other half down. Arisphanes expressed similar ideas. In an attempt define love he wrote: "Each of us when separated, having one side only, like a flat fish, is but the indenture of man, and he is always looking for his other half And when one of them meets his other half, the actual half of himself, whether he be a lover of youth or of another sort, the pair are lost in amazement of love and friendship and intimacy, and will not be out of the other's sight, as I may say, even a moment Plato espoused similar ideas.
He viewed lovers as incomplete halves who could not find peace until they found each other. In The Republic , Plato wrote about marriage mainly as a means of reproduction while he wrote about the erotic loves in Symposium in "blushingly romantic terms. Lay Allous low with fever, with unceasing sickness, lack of appetite, senselessness.
Goad the tortured soul, the heart of Karosa Immediately, quickly, quickly Mother, brothers, sisters, until she comes to me Burn her limbs, live, female body, until she comes to me, and not disobeying me. John Opsopaus of hermetic. It is quite likely that many of the papyri come from a single source, perhaps a tomb or temple library, and it is commonly supposed that they were collected by a Theban Magician.
In any case, they are one of the best sources of Greco-Egyptian magic and religion. Pound together. Anoint your Phallus with it and lie with the Woman. If it is dry, you should pound a little of it with Wine, anoint your Phallus with it, and lie with the Woman. Very Good. If you wish to win a Woman who is beautiful, be Pure for 3 days, make an offering of Frankincense, and call this Name over it.
You approach the Woman and say it seven times in your Soul as you gaze at her, and in this way it will succeed. But do this for 7 days. According to historians, demographic studies suggest the ancients attempted to limit family size.
Greek historians wrote that urban families in the first and second centuries B. Between A. Before intercourse women tried applying a perceived spermicidal oil made from juniper trees or blocking their cervix with a block of wood. Women also ate dates and pomegranates to avoid pregnancy modern studies have shown that the fertility of rats decreases when they ingest these foods. Women in Greece and the Mediterranean were told that scooped out pomegranates halves could be used as cervical caps and sea sponges rinsed in acidic lemon juice could serve as contraceptives.
The Greek physician Soranus wrote in the 2nd century A. In the seventh century B. A substance from a similar plant called ferujol has been shown in modern clinical studies to be percent successful in preventing pregnancy in female rats up to three days after coitus. Sixth century B. The plant was so much in demand in ancient Greece it eventually became scarce, and attempts to grow it outside of the mile-long mountainous region it grew in Libya failed. By the 5th century B.
Abortions were performed in ancient times, says North Carolina State history professor John Riddle, and discussions about featured many of the same arguments we hear today. The Greeks and Romans made a distinction between a fetus with features and one without features.
The latter could be aborted without having to worry about legal or religious reprisals. Plato advocated population control in the ideal city state and Aristotle suggested that "if conception occurs in excess The Stoics believed the human soul appeared when first exposed to cool air, and the potential for a soul existed at conception. Hippocrates warned physicians in his oath not to use one kind of abortive suppository, but the statement was misinterpreted as a blanket condemnation of all of abortion.
John Chrystom, the Byzantine bishop of Constantinople compared abortion to murder in A. The Law Code of Gortyn B.