Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig-Overview of Uterine Prolapse and Eversion - Reproductive System - Veterinary Manual

The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig Cavia porcellus , also known as cavy or domestic cavy , is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia. Despite their common name , guinea pigs are not native to Guinea , nor are they biologically related to pigs , and the origin of the name is still unclear. They originated in the Andes of South America , and studies based on biochemistry and hybridization suggest they are domesticated descendants of a closely related species of cavy such as C. In Western society , the domestic guinea pig has enjoyed widespread popularity as a pocket pet , a type of household pet , since its introduction by European traders in the 16th century. Their docile nature, friendly responsiveness to handling and feeding, and the relative ease of caring for them have made and continue to make guinea pigs a popular choice of pet.

Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig

Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig

Canyon Lake Veterinary Hospital. Encourage exercise and prevent obesity while ensuring Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig and water is readily available. Cavia porcellus Linnaeus Only gold members can continue reading. Unilateral or bilateral ovarian cysts Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig very common, particularly in older sows. Place three fingers depends on the size of the animal into the rectum or vagina and pull the sutures tight around your fingers. Place the Utfrus in dorsal recumbency and drape appropriately. Thus it is important to proceed quickly. Quite common, in sows particular just before and after farrowing. Gross vaagina of the uterine horns small arrows and body large arrow in a guinea pig Cavia porcellus.

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Often times surgery is required, in this case so seeking vet care is a must. The vet has cleaned it up and put it back in with a stitch, given her some antibiotics and an anti inflamatory, and I can pick her up Untreated adult inner ear infection lunch once the vet is happy she's ok. Wait by her cage while she gives birth in case you need to intervene, but don't intervene unnecessarily. Poor Zephyr had her babies on Sunday but had been uncomfortable for a week or so beforehand and Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig when she passed faeces. Quite common, in sows particular just before and after farrowing. Hope she is back with the little ones soon. Poor girl I hope that she is soon home with you and her babies x. Be mindful that you will have slight resistance but never "FORCE" anything back into the body as you could injure the bowels Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig even perforate the vaginal membrane or uterus. Porno star lyrics back pain. The condition can be repaired surgically by amputation or, if the tissue Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig not overly traumatized, by replacement followed by use of a purse-string suture.

Keywords: boar , cyst , dystocia , gestation , lactation , ovulation , parturition , penis , precocial , preeclampsia , puberty , sow.

  • Prolapse of rectal or vaginal tissues usually occur sporadically in swine but when there is a common cause, can appear as an outbreak.
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  • A form of vaginal prolapse, different in pathogenesis, also occurs in dogs see Vaginal Hyperplasia in Small Animals.
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Keywords: boar , cyst , dystocia , gestation , lactation , ovulation , parturition , penis , precocial , preeclampsia , puberty , sow. The guinea pig Cavia porcellus is a popular companion animal and a common research model. Guinea pigs are useful in reproductive studies because they share many reproductive traits with human beings Fig 1. This article reviews anatomy and physiology of the guinea pig reproductive tract and summarizes some clinically significant medical problems.

Figure 1. Guinea pigs Cavia porcellus are useful in many reproductive studies. Boars tend to be larger than females, with both sexes having a single pair of inguinal mammae. Figure 2. Gross image of the testicle arrow in a mature boar Cavia porcellus. The epididymis lies along the dorsolateral surface of the testis.

The tail of the epididymis gives rise to the ductus deferens. Click image to enlarge. Clinical Tip: Although large, paired testes are obvious in mature boars, gender identification can be challenging in young pups. If the testicles are not obvious, sexing can be facilitated by placing gentle pressure at the base of the prepuce to partially extrude the penis.

The S-shaped penis consists of a body and glans. Guinea pigs possess an os penis, which is found within the dorsal surface of the entire length of the glans. There is also an intromittent sac on the ventral surface of the glans penis. Male reproductive glands include the seminal vesicles vesicular glands , coagulating glands, bulbourethral glands, and the prostate Fig 3.

Figure 3. Reproductive anatomy of the guinea pig Cavia porcellus boar. Photo credit: Drs. Craig Franklin and Cindy Besch-Williford. Each hair follicle of the guinea pig is associated with an androgen-dependent sebaceous gland. Boars frequently rub or press their rump against a surface, and the secretions deposited serve as a sexual attractant and to mark territory. Figure 4. Caudal gland large arrow and perineum small arrow in a male guinea pig Cavia porcellus.

Source: Uwe Gille via Wikimedia Commons. Estrus lasts hours, and during this time the sow displays lordosis, curvature of the spine with elevated hips, as well as vulvar dilation. The sow possesses a single pair of inguinal mammary glands with a single pair of inguinal mammary nipples Fig 5 , however supernumerary nipples are common. Figure 5. Both male and female guinea pigs Cavia porcellus possess a single pair of inguinal mammary glands.

Sows possess paired ovaries and a bicornuate uterus, consisting of paired uterine horns, a short uterine body, and a single os cervix Fig 6, Fig 7.

Figure 6. View of one uterine horn arrow in mature guinea pig Cavia porcellus. Figure 7. Gross view of the uterine horns small arrows and body large arrow in a guinea pig Cavia porcellus. During anestrus and pregnancy, the vaginal opening in hystricomorph rodents is sealed with an epithelial membrane called the vaginal closure membrane. The membrane opens at estrus, Day 26 or 27 of gestation, and at parturition in many animals.

The vulvar opening lies at the intersection of the branches and the anus is located at the base of the Y Fig 8. Figure 8. Y-shaped depression in the perineum of a guinea pig sow Cavia porcellus , illustrating the vulva white arrow and the anus yellow arrow.

When a receptive female is introduced, the boar begins to purr and sway his posterior from side to side, while circling, and sometimes brushing against the sow or even spraying urine at the sow. Whether ejaculation occurs or not, the male will perform genital grooming by dragging his perineum along the cage floor.

Meanwhile the female doubles over and uses her mouth to groom her genitals. Copulation is confirmed by the presence of a firm, rubbery deposit within the vagina called the copulatory or vaginal plug, composed of a solid mass of ejaculatory fluid.

The average guinea pig pregnancy lasts 68 days, with a reported range of days. The birth canal of the sow is narrow at the level of the os coxae 30 , and impending parturition is signaled by separation of the pubic symphysis. Clinical Tip: A gap up to 15 mm in width can be palpated at the pubic symphysis approximately 2 days before birth. Guinea pigs do not build nests 22 , 23 , however sows have been shown to display interest in other young in the cage just before giving birth.

The sow will display a quadrupedal squat, similar to that of defecation, as she gives birth. There is only about 5 minutes from the start of parturition to the birth of the first pup and only minutes between subsequent births Video 1.

After a newborn is expelled from the birthing canal, the sow doubles over to grab the pup with her teeth, followed by licking of the newborn and ingestion of the fetal membranes. The placenta is expelled once the last young is born. Postpartum estrus occurs approximately hours after parturition. Sows are able to use vocal cues in pup recognition. Paternal behavior in guinea pigs is not well studied, however, playing with pups and grooming the pups have been observed in wild boars.

Pups begin social play with littermates at about day 3. Video 2. Guinea pig milk contains 3. While nursing, newborns display filial lordosis. The back is flat and the perineal region is raised to allow the mother to lick the anogenital region.

Guinea pig mothers passively allow nursing, rather than actively seeking out their young. If fostering is not possible, orphaned guinea pigs can be fed from a dropper or pet nurser beginning at hours after birth.

In Australia, a guinea pig milk replacer is commercially available through Wombaroo. Although nursing continues for several weeks, pups begin nibbling on solids by Day 2 or within a few days of life. Pregnancy toxemia can occur during late gestation, usually 2 weeks prepartum to 2 weeks postpartum.

Fasting or metabolic toxemia, also known as pregnancy ketosis, is prevalent in obese sows, often during their first or second pregnancy. Encourage exercise and prevent obesity while ensuring food and water is readily available. The circulatory form of pregnancy toxemia, also known as preeclampsia, is caused by ischemia of the placenta and uterus due to compression of the blood supply by the gravid uterus.

The uterus can also compress blood supply to the kidneys or gastrointestinal tract. Sows suffer from a high rate of fetal deaths stillbirths and early neonatal deaths due to dystocia. Other reproductive conditions described in the literature include vaginal or uterine prolapse, mastitis, pyometra, metritis, vaginitis, orchitis, and epididymitis. Figure 9. Gross image illustrating ovarian cysts in a guinea pig Cavia porcellus.

Ovarian cysts are often associated with other conditions, such as leiomyomas, granulosa cell tumors, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, mucometra, and endometritis. Definitive diagnosis of ovarian cysts relies upon abdominal ultrasound or exploratory laparotomy, although survey radiographs can identify large cysts in many cases.

Male guinea pigs possess distinct scrotal pouches and large testicles. Boars also have several accessory sex glands, including paired seminal vesicles or vesicular glands.

These large, coiled, blind sacs are extremely large, filling a large portion of the caudal abdomen. Puberty occurs between months in male guinea pigs and at 2 months in females. Sows are seasonally polyestrous and spontaneous ovulators. During gestation, the cartilage joining the bones of pubic symphysis begins to dissolve and is completely gone by birth. This separation of the pubic symphysis may be inadequate in primiparous sows bred after months and dystocia may result.

Additional important reproductive diseases include pregnancy toxemia and ovarian cysts. Neonatal guinea pigs are precocial. Guinea pig mothers allow passive nursing and young from other females are able to nurse, which makes fostering a viable possibility for the orphaned pup. Login Register Home. Mature boars have distinct scrotal pouches and large testes. Male guinea pigs have several accessory sex glands, including large, paired seminal vesicles or vesicular glands, which can be mistaken for uterine horns.

Puberty occurs at approximately 2 months in females and between months in males. The pubic symphysis separates in the last days of pregnancy. Separation of the pubic symphysis may be inadequate in sows bred after months of age and dystocia can result in these individuals. Other potential causes of dystocia include obesity and large fetal size. Sows often give birth to large, precocial pups. Other rodent species generally have large litters. Pregnancy toxemia is an important cause of perinatal mortality in guinea pigs.

The prognosis is often guarded. Minimize the risk of pregnancy toxemia by encouraging exercise, preventing obesity, and minimizing stress in the pregnant sow. Unilateral or bilateral ovarian cysts are very common, particularly in older sows.

Often this feeling gets worse as the day goes on or gets worse after standing, lifting or coughing. The organ is washed and rinsed, and the bladder emptied if necessary. The sow has to be separated from all males. Quite common, in sows particular just before and after farrowing. Stretching and relaxation of pelvic ligaments. Permanent fixation techniques cervicopexy or vaginopexy have been described in which the cervix or vaginal wall is anchored to other pelvic structures.

Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig

Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig

Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig. SOCIAL MEDIA

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Prolapse of the Bladder | The Pig Site

It is rare in mares, bitches, queens, and rabbits. Prolapse of the uterus invariably occurs immediately after or within several hours of parturition, when the cervix is open and the uterus lacks tone.

Prolapse of the postgravid uterine horn usually is complete in cows, and the mass of uterus usually hangs below the hocks. The invagination of the contralateral horn, which is prevented from exteriorization by the strong intercornual ligament, can be located by careful examination of the surface of the prolapsed organ.

In sows, one horn may become everted while unborn piglets in the other prevent further prolapse. In small animals, complete prolapse of both uterine horns is usual. A contributory cause in sheep may be grazing estrogenic pastures. In cows, treatment involves removing the placenta if still attached , thoroughly cleaning the endometrial surface, and repairing any lacerations.

Rubbing the surface of the uterus with glycerol helps reduce edema and provides lubrication. The uterus is then returned to its normal position. An epidural anesthetic should be administered first. If the cow is standing, the cleansed uterus should be elevated to the level of the vulva on a tray or hammock supported by assistants, and then replaced by applying steady pressure beginning at the cervical portion or at the level of the invagination of the nonprolapsed uterine horn and gradually working toward the apex.

Once the uterus is replaced, a hand should be inserted to the tip of both uterine horns to be sure there is no remaining invagination that could incite abdominal straining and another prolapse.

Installation of warm, sterile saline solution is useful to ensure complete replacement of the tip of the uterine horn without trauma. If recumbent, the cow should be positioned with the hindquarters elevated by placing her in sternal recumbency with the hindlegs extended backward. When elevating the hindquarters of the cow, care should be taken to lift the prolapsed uterus with the hindquarters to prevent stretching and laceration of the uterine artery.

Replacement of the prolapsed uterus in mares is done in a similar way, usually with the mare sedated but standing, taking care not to perforate the uterus. In sows and small animals, the uterus may be repositioned by simultaneously manipulating it from outside with one hand and through an abdominal incision with the other.

Resection of the uterus is indicated in longstanding cases in which tissue necrosis has occurred. Caslick sutures or other forms of vulvar closure are not useful, because the uterine prolapse begins at the apex of the uterine horn. Prevention of recurrence depends on complete and correct replacement of the uterus and restoration of uterine tone. The prognosis is favorable when a clean, minimally traumatized uterus is promptly replaced. There is no tendency for the condition to recur at subsequent parturitions.

Complications tend to develop when laceration, necrosis, and infection occur, or when treatment is delayed. Shock, hemorrhage, and thromboembolism are potential sequelae of a prolonged prolapse. In some instances, the bladder and intestines may prolapse into the everted uterus.

These require careful replacement before the uterus is replaced. The bladder may be drained with a catheter or needle passed through the uterine wall. Elevation of the hindquarters and pressure on the uterus aid in replacement of bladder and intestines. It may be necessary to incise the uterus carefully in a longitudinal direction to replace these organs.

In cows, amputation of a severely traumatized or necrotic uterus may be the only way to save the animal. Supportive treatment and antibiotic therapy are indicated. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Veterinary Manual was first published in as a service to the community.

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Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig

Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig

Uterus vagina prolapse guinea pig