The effect of drinking water supplementation with lycopene on the semen quality, fertility and immunity of broiler breeders was evaluated. Broiler breeder males were individually caged from 25 to 42 weeks old and divided into two group: L group, treated birds lycopene 0. Laying hens were divided into two groups and artificially inseminated. Semen variables were evaluated and daily fertility recorded. Serum bactericidal activity was tested.
In addition to directly neutralizing ROS by acting as a singlet oxygen quencher, hence causing the Lycopene semen amount of ROS to Weeding sex, lycopene also indirectly decreases oxidative stress by activating other mechanisms that increase antioxidant potential. Elevated levels of ROS are a Lycopene semen cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Below are relevant articles that may interest you. It can therefore be postulated that the intake of lycopene will offer protection from ROS in seminal plasma and decrease oxidative stress, one of Lycopene semen main causes of idiopathic male factor infertility. Retrieved October 23, from www. Lycopene supplementation in vitro can protect human sperm deoxyribonucleic acid from Lyco;ene damage.
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If you think you might be overweight, consult a healthcare provider for advice on how to maintain a healthy weight for your body. The aim of Lyco;ene study was to investigate the effect of different types of tomato processing on contents of lycopene, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol. Also men who have not yet taken a semen analysis test will benefit from supplementing micronutrients to Lycopene semen they are able to deliver high-quality semen. How Much Lycopene in there in a Tomato? This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Since malondialdehyde is produced as an end product of lipid peroxidation, by using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test, malondialdehyde concentrations can be an indicator of the damage caused to lipid membranes. Red carrots, which provide a huge amount of lycopene when eaten daily, can be of a huge benefit to those who are facing age-related macular degenerative eye disease. Your email address will not be published. Although the effect of lycopene is biologically relevant, the tomato is also an excellent source of nutrients, including folate, vitamin C, and various other carotenoids and phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, semeb also may be associated with lower cancer risk. Shockingly, this is down significantly compared to estimates of male fertility in the s. Hello, My name is Chetan, 37 year s Lycopene semen, I was Clarissa house escort 6 months. Since the experimental conditions were aqueous, lycopene might have been unable to act as it would in vivo. Fruits such as watermelon and pink grapefruit will contribute lycopene to the diet too. The antioxidant lycopene may exert useful effects on human sperm as well as eggs, according to preliminary research. These findings provide plausible explanations Lycopne the epidemiological findings how lycopene can contribute to reduced prostate cancer risk.
European Journal of Nutrition.
- Males struggling with infertility may have a new and easy way to increase their overall sperm health.
- If low sperm count , poor sperm motility, and morphology are your concerns, add tomatoes, watermelon, guava, papaya, ruby red grapefruit, and sundried tomatoes to your daily Male Fertility Diet.
Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species ROS cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa.
It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement.
Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4—8 mg of lycopene daily for 3—12 months.
However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. There has been increasing evidence in recent years that oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic male factor infertility.
Elucidating the value of antioxidant supplementation as a treatment option for infertility has therefore become a goal for many researchers. Extensive research has been conducted to show that antioxidants like vitamins E and C and carnitines help in reducing oxidative stress by quenching free radicals. A free radical refers to a molecule that has at least one unpaired electron, 3 , 4 which is responsible for the molecule's short-lived high energy state that causes instability and extreme reactivity.
Enzymatic antioxidants include glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase; while nonenzymatic oxidants include vitamins C, E and B, carotenoids and carnitines. When ROS levels are greatly increased or antioxidant levels substantially decreased such that the delicate balance between ROS and antioxidants is disturbed, oxidative stress occurs.
Several studies have shown a link between oxidative stress and idiopathic male factor infertility. These electrons are donated to ROS upon reaction and lead to the generation of lipid peroxides. Lycopene is one of the many compounds that make up the carotenoid family.
Carotenoids are naturally found in fruits and vegetables, and give plants their bright yellow, orange and red colors. Hence, they are only synthesized by plants and microorganisms, but not humans.
Carotenoids are vital components of human diet not only because they are sources of vitamin A, but also because they have antioxidant properties.
Lycopene C 40 H 56 is a red-pigmented unsaturated linear carotenoid with a molecular weight of Many factors influence the absorption of lycopene, and these include age, gender, hormonal status, smoking, alcohol and other components present in the diet. Previous reports have shown that lycopene from processed and heated tomato products are better absorbed than lycopene from raw tomatoes.
After being absorbed, lycopene is transported by low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins 15 , 18 , 19 and distributed via the circulatory system, resulting in its accumulation in various tissues. Information concerning the in vivo metabolism of lycopene is lacking. An overview of lycopene's mechanism of action is shown in Figure 1. General mechanisms of action of lycopene.
The proposed mechanisms of action of lycopene oxidative and nonoxidative that decreases the risk of oxidative stress-mediated diseases. ROS: reactive oxygen species. Due to its 11 conjugated double bonds, lycopene contains many electrons which can be donated to free radicals, resulting in their neutralization. In addition to directly neutralizing ROS by acting as a singlet oxygen quencher, hence causing the overall amount of ROS to decrease, lycopene also indirectly decreases oxidative stress by activating other mechanisms that increase antioxidant potential.
Other nonoxidative mechanisms by which lycopene could exert its effects include the following: aiding in gap junction communication, modulating gene expression, regulating the cell cycle and enhancing the immune system.
It is projected that tumor cells lack gap junction communication and therefore, continue to proliferate without inhibition. By improving communication between cells, lycopene could possibly prevent tumor formation and hence cancer, especially in the prostate, breast and lung.
Lycopene has been shown to have hypocholesterolemic properties because it inhibits hydroxyl-methly-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, an important rate-limiting enzyme responsible for cholesterol production. The aforementioned nonoxidative mechanisms of action could possibly apply to male infertility too, but as far as the authors are aware, no studies have been conducted in this area.
Although the precise mechanism of action by which lycopene exerts its effect is hitherto unknown, 13 , 30 several studies have shown some evidence that lycopene can help to alleviate male infertility.
A study that was performed to investigate the effects of lycopene on sperm parameters showed that the testes contained relatively high lycopene concentrations compared to other parts of the body.
This suggests that lycopene is likely to play a major physiological role as an antioxidant in the process of spermatogenesis.
Goyal et al. It can therefore be postulated that the intake of lycopene will offer protection from ROS in seminal plasma and decrease oxidative stress, one of the main causes of idiopathic male factor infertility. Hence, there is a strong indication that lycopene, a natural antioxidant, may contribute to the treatment of male infertility. A few mechanisms have been proposed, but the main one whereby lycopene is thought to aid in the treatment of infertility is via the antioxidation pathway.
Antioxidants are usually reducing agents that donate an electron to free radicals in order to quench ROS. Proposed mechanisms of action of lycopene in treating idiopathic male infertility. Flow chart depicting the pathway by which increased concentrations of lycopene in the seminal plasma could reduce the risk of oxidative stress-induced idiopathic male factor infertility. Several studies have been performed on humans and animals, both in vivo and in vitro , in an attempt to elucidate the true value of lycopene supplementation as a possible treatment strategy for idiopathic male factor infertility.
In this section, we will evaluate these 12 studies, half of which were conducted on human subjects and the other half on animals, by analyzing the outcomes that are related to oxidative stress Table 1 and sperm parameters Table 2. Summary of studies measuring the effect of lycopene supplementation on oxidative stress-related parameters. Summary of studies measuring the effects of lycopene supplementation on sperm-related parameters.
In order to measure the efficacy of lycopene, studies have measured biomarkers of oxidative stress such as the amount of lipid peroxidation, the DNA fragmentation index which is representative of the extent of DNA damage, and the amount of 8-hydroxy-deoxoguanosine in the urine.
Since malondialdehyde is produced as an end product of lipid peroxidation, by using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test, malondialdehyde concentrations can be an indicator of the damage caused to lipid membranes. Sarkar et al. Their blood samples were analyzed to quantify the amounts of biomarkers of oxidative stress before and after supplementation. Regardless of the source of lycopene, all patients showed a decrease in lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.
Aly et al. Hence, both these studies show that lycopene is effective in reducing lipid peroxidation, therefore reducing the damage caused by oxidative stress. Another parameter measured was the extent of damage that occurred to spermatozoal DNA, which is expressed as percent DNA fragmentation index and measured with different methods such as the comet assay and sperm chromatin structure assay.
Taken together, these studies imply that lycopene is able to aid in the reduction of DNA damage in spermatozoa, therefore increasing the chances of successful fertilization of the oocyte and better embryo development. Urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxoguanosine, another biomarker of oxidative stress, was only tested for in the study conducted by Devaraj and his coworkers, who evaluated the effects of various doses of lycopene 0, 6.
Other oxidative stress-related parameters that were discussed in the studies we evaluated are the level of antioxidants and overall immunity. Studies conducted by Choi and Seo 35 and Aly et al. By measuring bactericidal activity in serum, a study on broiler breeder males also proved that lycopene supplementation improved overall immunity.
On the other hand, a study performed by Goyal et al. In this experiment, six healthy volunteers were instructed to have g of heated cream of tomato soup daily for 2 weeks.
Blood and semen samples were analyzed before and after the experiment. This could be due to the fact that lycopene is hydrophobic and therefore trapped in the lipid membranes in seminal plasma. Since the experimental conditions were aqueous, lycopene might have been unable to act as it would in vivo.
As explained earlier, oxidative stress has a negative effect on the male reproductive system by inducing lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, which may eventually lead to apoptosis. Hence, an improvement in the biomarkers of oxidative stress would show a decrease in oxidative stress-related problems, and is likely to aid in the treatment of infertility.
Sperm parameters generally include sperm count and concentration, motility, viability and morphology. Of the four studies that measured sperm concentration, only two of them, Gupta and Kumar 29 and Mohanty et al. Hence, there is no conclusive evidence for an improvement in sperm concentration of the ejaculation.
Sperm motility was analyzed by five studies, with a majority of them showing that lycopene had a beneficial effect on this parameter.
Gupta and Kumar 29 and Mohanty et al. Sperm viability was only assessed by a single study, which indicated that lycopene supplementation improved this parameter. In this study, broiler breeders were separated into two groups, and only one group was given lycopene supplementation of 0. The last sperm parameter analyzed is sperm morphology. Although all three studies that measured this outcome reported improved morphology after lycopene supplementation, the improvement was less than expected and not as significant as that of sperm concentration and motility.
In general, the human trials analyzed in this review showed that 4—8 mg of daily lycopene supplementation for 3—12 months is sufficient to treat male infertility. As demonstrated by the analyses of the various studies above, the only parameters that are conclusively improved with lycopene supplementation are: a decrease in lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, an increase in antioxidants and therefore general immunity, and improved sperm count and viability.
These improvements are vital in tackling the problem of oxidative stress, which affects sperm viability, motility and DNA, and therefore causes infertility.
Patients should be randomly assigned to receive different daily dosages of lycopene over a specific time period, and the outcomes measured should not only include sperm parameters, but pregnancy rates as well.
DD conceived of the study, participated in its design, carried out the literature search, participated in the analysis and interpretation of the information, drafted and revised the manuscript; AA provided critical review of the manuscript, participated in the study coordination and gave the final approval of the version to be published; CO participated in the study design, carried out the literature search, participated in the compilation, analysis and interpretation of the information, drafted and revised the manuscript; and PP drafted the manuscript.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Asian J Androl v. Asian J Androl. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence: Dr. A Agarwal gro. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species ROS cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Keywords: antioxidants, lycopene, male infertility, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, sperm parameters. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Table 1 Summary of studies measuring the effect of lycopene supplementation on oxidative stress-related parameters.
Table 2 Summary of studies measuring the effects of lycopene supplementation on sperm-related parameters.
Due to the loss of water during thermal processing, contents of lycopene, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol on a wet weight basis increased. Besides, other studies including this, have found that lycopene from heat processed tomatoes eaten with oil is about two and a half times better absorbed than that from raw tomatoes. When ROS levels are greatly increased or antioxidant levels substantially decreased such that the delicate balance between ROS and antioxidants is disturbed, oxidative stress occurs. Other oxidative stress-related parameters that were discussed in the studies we evaluated are the level of antioxidants and overall immunity. Sperm motility was analyzed by five studies, with a majority of them showing that lycopene had a beneficial effect on this parameter.
Lycopene semen. The rise of male infertility
Dietary supplement from tomatoes discovered to boost sperm quality -- ScienceDaily
Scientists at the University of Sheffield are launching a pioneering study to investigate if a simple extra nutrient can boost male fertility. It is estimated that one in six couples are unable to conceive -- in about half of cases the problem is caused by poor sperm quality.
Professor Pacey said: "Studies elsewhere in the world have shown that the antioxidant properties of lycopene seem to have a beneficial effect on sperm quality and we want to investigate this further. This study will tell us if lycopene improves the quality of sperm already in development by reducing DNA damage, and whether it produces an overall increase in the number of mature sperm produced overall. If it works in the volunteers we would then consider testing it in infertile patients.
The initiative follows a similar study led by Ashok Agarwal, director of the Cleveland Clinic's Center for Reproductive Medicine in the USA, which indicated lycopene supplementation could raise sperm count by up to 70 per cent Durairajanayagam et al. A number of other research studies have also shown lycopene may slow the progression of cancer of the prostate, the gland that makes seminal fluid. Dr Williams, who is an expert in designing trials to observe the health effects of diet, said: "Little work has been done in this area, but if lycopene has a beneficial effect on the prostate, it is reasonable to think it might also improve sperm function.
Half of the volunteers will take two 7mg capsules per day of a highly absorbable form of lycopene supplement containing lactolycopene while the other half will take identical dummy capsules. The first samples will be taken at the beginning of the study to provide a baseline measurement for each volunteer.
A second set of samples will be taken six weeks into the study and a third will be taken at the end of the week period. Volunteers will not be given any personal information about their sperm count or potential fertility. The over-the-counter lactolycopene supplement, called XY Pro being used for the study, has been chosen because of previous scientific papers showing its lycopene formulation is very readily absorbed.
Materials provided by Sheffield, University of. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News. Story Source: Materials provided by Sheffield, University of. ScienceDaily, 11 April Sheffield, University of. Scientists investigate sperm-boosting nutrient which may help infertile couples. Retrieved October 23, from www. Researchers have identified a protein in mice that must be present in eggs Nearly half of cases of male infertility not due to a Below are relevant articles that may interest you.
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