Diversity and inclusion in workplaces and other social institutions: science and practice View all 6 Articles. Scholars have proposed that interpersonal workplace discrimination toward members of oppressed social groups has become covert and subtle rather than overt and explicit and that such experiences lead to negative outcomes for targets. The present study examined this proposition by examining experiences and consequences of workplace incivility—a seemingly harmless form of interpersonal maltreatment—based on gender, sexual orientation, and their intersection. Findings also revealed that women reported lower job satisfaction than men and that heterosexuals reported higher job stress and lower job identity centrality than sexual minorities with higher levels of incivility. Thus, sexual minority status buffered the negative effects of incivility for sexual minorities.
A third concern with the Kinsey scale is that it inappropriately measures heterosexuality and homosexuality on the same How sexual orientation affects groups, making one a tradeoff of the other. For each question on the scale that measures homosexuality there is a corresponding question that measures heterosexuality giving six matching pairs of questions. Barlow argues that this has two theoretical implications: 1 it is not possible to write a Chinese history of heterosexuality, sexuality as an institution, oriebtation sexual identities in the European metaphysical sense, and 2 it is not appropriate to ground discussions of Chinese gender processes in the Picture of naked man body so central in "Western" gender processes. How sexual orientation affects groups Statistics FY Through First, using nationally representative data, we explore whether differences in perceived stress exist between heterosexuals with concordant i. Related terms such as pansexual and polysexual do not make any such assignations orientatkon the subject. We found no sex difference in the association between same-sex behavior and gay or lesbian identity, but boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and bisexual identity.
Deja boob pic. Original Research ARTICLE
Characteristics of the Cal-QOL survey sample by gender and sexual orientation a. The course of gay and lesbian lives: Social and psychoanalytic perspectives. Archived from the original on 27 October Depressive Symptoms As suggested by Sesuallesbians and bisexual women may be at increased risk for psychological distress because of their multiple jeopardy status in which stress associated with race, gender, and sexual orientation discrimination is compounded. New York: Free Press; Chasteen, Nicholas O. Although there continues to be controversy and uncertainty as to the genesis of the variety of human sexual orientations, Bargain bathroom vanity is no scientific evidence that abnormal parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life oeientation influence sexual orientation. Michael Bailey and Kenneth Zucker found a majority of the gay men and lesbians sampled reporting various degrees of gender-nonconformity during their How sexual orientation affects groups years. European Social Hot daddy gaymen How sexual orientation affects groups treaty protects social and economic rights and its European Committee of Social Rights examines the human rights record of states. Applied orientatuon minority stress theory, a researcher may formulate hypothesis about such intersections instead of the group as a whole. Psychological Well-being Social status differences Model 1 In contrast to our findings regarding social well-being, we did not find support for any of sexua, hypotheses regarding psychological well-being. University of Chicago Press. In: Herek GM, editor.
In one study, 22 women and nine men viewed photos of straight and gay black and white males and rated their likeability on a scale of one not likable to seven extremely likable.
- Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms.
- Androphilia describes sexual attraction to masculinity ; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to femininity.
- Research has shown that some individuals with sexual minority status have a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders both mental health and substance use and also tend to seek treatment at higher rates as compared with similar heterosexuals.
- Sexual violence affects every demographic and every community — including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer LGBTQ people.
The relationship between the environment and sexual orientation is a subject of research. In the study of sexual orientation , some researchers distinguish environmental influences from hormonal influences,  while other researchers include biological influences such as prenatal hormones as part of environmental influences.
Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is the result of a complex interplay of genetic , hormonal , and environmental influences. Hypotheses for the impact of the post-natal social environment on sexual orientation are weak, especially for males. Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation.
They do, however, encourage gay affirmative psychotherapy. Scholar Lisa Diamond , when reviewing research on lesbian and bisexual women's sexual identities, stated that studies find "change and fluidity in same-sex sexuality that contradict conventional models of sexual orientation as a fixed and uniformly early-developing trait".
Researchers have found childhood gender nonconformity CGN to be the largest predictor of homosexuality in adulthood. In men, CGN is a strong predictor of sexual orientation in adulthood, but this relationship is not as well understood in women.
Daryl Bem suggests that some children will prefer activities that are typical of the other sex. Choice of activity consistent with societally defined gender roles will make a gender-conforming child feel different from opposite-sex children. Gender-nonconforming children, on the other hand, will feel different from children of their own sex. In either case, Bem argues, this feeling of difference may evoke physiological arousal when the child is near members of the sex which it considers as being "different", which will later be transformed into sexual arousal.
This nonconformity may be a result of genetics, prenatal hormones, personality, parental care or other environmental factors. Bearman and Bruckner showed that males with a female twin are twice as likely to report same-sex attractions, unless there was an older brother. They say that their findings can be explained by the hypothesis that less gendered socialization in early childhood and preadolescence shapes subsequent same-sex romantic preferences.
In addition to attraction, opportunity has to present itself. Since opportunity is socially structured, the expectation is that social influences should be stronger for behavior than attraction. Many of the studies on the link between CGN and sexual orientation are conducted retrospectively , meaning that adults are asked to reflect on their behaviors as children. Adults will often reinterpret their childhood behaviors in terms of their present conceptualizations of their gender identity and sexual orientation.
Lesbian women who endorse a social constructionist perspective on gender identity often interpret their childhood GNC as an awareness of patriarchal norms and rejection of gender roles.
Retrospective reinterpretation does not invalidate studies linking GNC and sexual orientation, but awareness of how present conceptualization of gender identity and sexual orientation can affect perceptions of childhood may be considered.
Some researchers think this may indicate that childhood family experiences are important determinants to homosexuality,  or that parents behave this way in response to gender-variant traits in a child.
From their research on men in the Taiwanese military, Shu and Lung concluded that "paternal protection and maternal care were determined to be the main vulnerability factors in the development of homosexual males". Key factors in the development of homosexuals were "paternal attachment, introversion, and neurotic characteristics". Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large numbers of siblings, and late birth order.
Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families. For men, same-sex marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of same-sex marriage.
It links sexual orientation in men with two regions of the human genome that have been implicated before. Another region in the twist of chromosome 8, known as 8q12, was first identified in In their landmark study of sexual behavior in the United States—reported in the Social Organization of Sexuality —the University of Chicago sociologist Edward Laumann and his colleagues found that homosexuality was positively correlated with urbanization of the place of residence at age The authors hypothesized that "Large cities may provide a congenial environment for the development and expression of same-gender interest.
The behavior was practiced openly and was highly prevalent. Sexual patterns are to some extent a product of society's expectations, but it would be difficult to envisage a change in the prevalence of the genetic trait merely in response to changing cultural norms.
The American Psychiatric Association states: " However, the study went on to state that victims may self-identify as gay or bisexual before the abuse occurs, implying that their non-heterosexual orientation and identity is not caused by the abuse, and reported that no longitudinal study had determined a causal relationship between sexual abuse and sexual orientation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A field of sexual orientation research. Main article: Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation. Further information: LGBT history. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Cengage Learning. Retrieved January 11, Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved January 10, Psychological Science in the Public Interest. American Psychiatric Association.
Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved January 1, The Royal College of Psychiatrists. Retrieved 13 June American Journal of Sociology. Retrieved 10 September Dev Psychol. Journal of Sex Research. James; Williams, Mark L. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc We expect that in all cultures the vast majority of individuals are sexually predisposed exclusively to the other sex i.
Dennis Coon, John O. Mitterer Retrieved February 18, Sexual orientation is a deep part of personal identity and is usually quite stable. Retrieved June 22, The notion that sexual orientation can change over time is known as sexual fluidity.
Even if sexual fluidity exists for some women, it does not mean that the majority of women will change sexual orientations as they age — rather, sexuality is stable over time for the majority of people.
American Psychological Association. Retrieved February 3, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Archived from the original PDF on J Developmental Psychology. Psychology Press. Columbia University Press. Psychological Review. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion.
Am J Psychiatry. Journal of Gender Studies. Arch Sex Behav. Being homosexual: Gay men and their development. Becoming gay: The journey to self-acceptance. New York, Pantheon.
Comprehensive Psychiatry. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. Retrieved Psychological Medicine. J Biosoc Sci. Personality and Individual Differences. Horm Behav. The fraternal birth-order effect on male sexual orientation".
J Homosex. Gagnon; Robert T. Michael; Stuart Michaels Sex in America: A Definitive Survey.
In , the "Roth" Report detailed the variety of discrimination against lesbians and gays in the EU and the Parliament adopted a recommendation on the abolition of all forms of sexual orientation discrimination. Kertzner, Columbia University. Main articles: Sexual orientation change efforts and Conversion therapy. Internal consistency reliabilities alpha for the total scale was 0. The Parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE passed a declaration in Ottawa in calling on member states to provide equal protection against discrimination for all, sexual orientation being among the grounds specifically protected from discrimination. Bou Eds. Sexual orientation exists along a continuum that ranges from exclusive homosexuality to exclusive heterosexuality and includes various forms of bisexuality.
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Douglas C. Living in coastal Hancock County, Dr. Kimmel is a member of the Maine Psychological Association, now retired from the practice of psychology.
His current interest is working for greater awareness of aging issues for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender LGBT Maine residents. Kimmel wrote and co-edited several books, chapters in books, and journal articles. He also taught in Japan and Maine, and lectured in China. The goal of this article is to provide some useful resources for understanding the special issues of aging lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT older adults, especially related to isolation.
All of these resources are readily available on-line by searching the associated links, or on the original website. It began offering friendly visiting, brunches, dances, and social events. It drew attention to sexual disorientation and ageism and the myth that gay people do not grow old. This article relies on the pioneering work of SAGE and draws heavily on materials it provides online.
We summarize some key points with links for the quotations as well as for additional resources at the end of this article. One obstacle facing all aging Americans is the risk of social isolation. As adults near retirement age, they may become isolated over time from their broader communities places of worship, work settings, etc. The primary risk factors for social isolation affect LGBT older adults in unique and disproportionate ways.
For example, one primary risk factor is living alone. LGBT older people are twice as likely to live alone, twice as likely to be single, and three to four times less likely to have children—and many are estranged from their biological families.
Other risk factors for social isolation include mobility or sensory impairments, socio-economic status, and psychological or cognitive vulnerabilities. The research shows that LGBT elders face higher disability rates, struggle with economic security and higher poverty rates, and many LGBT elders deal with mental health concerns that come from a lifetime of discrimination that has had psychological and materials costs.
The hardships associated with being a caregiver can also place the caregiver at risk for social isolation, yet few supports for caregivers consider the unique needs of LGBT families.
Secure, stable, and affordable housing is a necessary component for healthy aging. In practical terms, a home is a physical shelter from the elements. However, people also feel a powerful emotional connection to their homes— it is a place where they can feel safe to be themselves, free from intimidation, harassment or discrimination.
Research has consistently shown that LGBT older adults are less likely to have children to care for them, less likely to have someone to call on in time of need, and are at much greater risk for social isolation than their heterosexual peers.
Therefore, many of them have created strong social networks and families of choice within the LGBT community. LGBT older adults in a San Diego study stated the desire to age at home rather than move, but when asked about options, over 90 percent indicated a preference for LGBT-specific housing if it were available, and 94 percent of the same cohort reported a preference to live alongside other LGBT adults.
For LGBT older adults, who came of age during a time before people began living openly and being LGBT was often misunderstood and grounds for fear and harassment, safe homes are especially important. Unfortunately, this security is denied to many LGBT older adults.
Many LGBT older adults experience fear, intimidation and harassment in their private homes as well as in nursing homes or assisted living facilities, making their living situations physically and emotionally unhealthy.
The report collected information and stories from individuals who responded to an online survey. And while friends do provide needed support, many also have HIV. Beyond the high rates of loneliness and poorer quality-of-life, social isolation also points to an impending shortfall of the support these older adults will need now and as they grow older and confront multiple health issues. Caregivers are derived from these social networks.
Without caregivers, OPLWHA will need to increasingly turn to supports that are medically based, as well as formal community-based social services that address their treatment and care needs. Research is needed to better understand the causes of social isolation among OPLWHA, as well as studies that examine dynamics of social support among this population to better understand their needs and how they are met.
We need to develop and test interventions that can serve to reduce social isolation and increase available levels of support. There are several agencies and programs across the country that have adopted programs dedicated to supporting the needs of LGBT eldersand their caregivers.
The following are a few of those efforts. In , they created the Rainbow Elders, a social support group for LGBT seniors; a group of 10—20 folks who met monthly for about eight years. This cultural competency training was launched in and includes a film in which local elders and area providers voice their concerns about the aging services network; a page manual of definitions, cultural competency tips, and LGBT history accompanies the film.
Lastly, since , the Boulder Country Area Agency on Aging has hosted an annual Lavender Gala to reduce social isolation during the holidays. They also hold at least one educational activity, such as an estate planning workshop, for the community.
Homesharing is a shared housing program where compatible matches are facilitated between a renter and a Homesharing provider who has an extra bedroom in their apartment, condominium, or house. Although each participant has their own bedroom, common areas of the home, such as the living room and kitchen, are shared between them.
In some cases, renters provide household assistance in exchange for reduced rent. Larson points out several of the unique needs of LGBT older adults that make this program so important. The household assistance that renters can provide to LGBT older adults through this program can help them remain in their own home and age in place.
Second, he posits that after a lifetime of unequal treatment under the law, many LGBT older adults are experiencing financial hardships. The additional revenue that the Homesharing provider receives from the rent can be tremendously beneficial for seniors on a fixed income.
Lastly, Larson informs that social isolation among LGBT older adults is common as their support systems dwindle as they age. The companionship they receive from their renter can reduce loneliness and isolation. The following are some anecdotal examples from three years of experience in this rural and relatively politically conservative state. On the first day the intern was greeted by two women who did not know each other. One had recently been bereaved after a year relationship with a same-sex partner and was coping with the attitudes of friends and colleagues who did not recognize that this grief was equivalent to that of a married couple, not just two roommates or friends.
The second lived down a long dirt road several miles from Bangor and did not know another lesbian. After an article appeared in the Bangor Daily News about the group, two other women who had been together for over 30 years and had just retired, and a male neighbor they thought might be gay, arrived; they did not know any other lesbian or gay people in Bangor either.
Currently, the group has grown to include a monthly luncheon that attracts as many as 21 people with two service dogs. At the recent Pride Festival, many of these pot-luckers met and greeted each other, as the two retired women helped staff the table along with three other Drop-In folks.
Although previously isolated, these students are no longer disconnected and are part of a supportive community. She feels honored to be considered for this opportunity to give back to SAGE and help others, as she has been helped. Middle-aged volunteers from a local insurance company help serve the meals to over 80 participants.
This year there was not only a contingent of walkers in the Pride Parade, but SAGE Maine was able to use a tourist trolley to bring those who did not walk to the large festival in the park, where we provided seating in the shade for all older participants. The calls are arranged by the Executive Director at the request of the participants who provide a phone number for the call to be received; there is also a toll-free number with no code needed if they wish to connect without providing their phone number, or are calling from a different number.
Some typical comments on the LGB conversation is the fear of disclosure in the rural community, concern about anti-gay attitudes if they need home health or physical therapy, and worry about housing if one can no longer live at home. The TGNC group, which is made up primarily of individuals who have never identified as LGB and have been, or still are married, have different concerns. For example, one person had to visit the emergency room late at night and felt the attending staff was uncom-fortable with treating her, despite the fact that she has been regularly seen at the hospital for many years.
Another participant lives in a very rural part of the state and no one knows he was not born male. Another TGNC participant, still living with a wife, has to take our calls out in the barn on her cell phone, as the wife is unaccepting of living with someone who thinks of herself as a woman. These services include: weekly caregiver support groups, one-on-one and group counseling services, educational seminars, bereavement group referrals, and development of caregiving plans. In addition, SAGECAP works with caregivers to prepare for their own aging needs by offering informational workshops on topics such as long-term care, financial and legal planning, and referrals to planning professionals with expertise in LGBT aging issues.
By offering a comprehensive menu of counseling supports and educational resources, SAGECAP supports the caregiver with their current reality as well as preparing them for a supportive aging future.
Additionally, SAGECAP promotes LGBT caregiving issues through education and outreach both locally and nationally through ad campaigns, presentations and partnerships with aging service providers to increase the ability of the aging services, and LGBT services network to meet the needs of the growing numbers of caregivers. These support and housing programs are shining examples of what is being done and what can be done to better help LGBT elders face their unique aging experience. As Aging Life Care Managers, it is vitally important we pay special attention to the risk factors for social isolation and loneliness in our aging LGBT clients and that you encourage your local providers and facilities to do the same.
As providers, we need to recognize the subtle and significant unique needs of isolated older individuals because of long-standing attitudes regarding sexual orientation and gender identity. These gender-based attitudes are often deeply ingrained in the fabric of society and in the psyche of individuals. Prefer to use email? Reach out at SAGE glbthotline.
This resource center is supported by SAGE and several other organizations and was created with a federal grant. Here are some of their current resource publications:. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
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