Richard Buchanan, PhD, is well known for extending the application of design into new areas of theory and practice, writing, and teaching as well as practicing the concepts and methods of interaction design. He argues that interaction design does not stop at the flatland of the computer screen but extends into the personal and social life of human beings and into the emerging area of service design, as well as into organizational and management design. In keeping with this conviction, Buchanan has worked on the redesign of the Australian Taxation System, the restructuring of service products and information for the U. Postal Service, and other consulting activities. Buchanan is a widely published author and frequent speaker.
It is the organization that must adapt to the needs and capabilities of people. We have a way of suspending disbelief. For example, one student Dick buchanon to a post office and spoke only in German in asking questions about how to mail a Dick buchanon. In China they create those. The third step is innovation. This is a very curious thing. He is looking at the individual lives of people both inside and outside the company.
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For all of our sophisticated and often technical discussions of user experience, there is one area of experience that we have found difficult, if not impossible, to consider with the same degree of sophistication.
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Weatherhead catches up with Dick Buchanan, Professor, Informations Systems, and manages to talk about everything from the United States Postal Service's financial troubles, to his personal summer project - reading Winston Churchill's six volume memoirs.
W: The U. Postal Service is in financial trouble , and some are speculating that it will cease to exist. You have unique insight into the USPS. Can you describe the project you conducted for them?
They were having trouble developing a new product line in small packages because of the complex legal rules governing their operations. We started out with a pilot project focused on developing a strategy for redesigning the core legal and operational document for the Postal Service. In the process of shaping a strategy, we found it valuable to develop a prototype document for ordinary post office users.
Using a variety of design and research techniques, we mapped all the different ways to mail a simple package. By studying a concrete case, we became immersed in the entire system and came to an understanding of the core ideas and capabilities of the Postal Service. DB: Six graduate students from Carnegie Mellon worked with me for 12 weeks on the pilot project.
We divided up into teams, developed two booklet prototypes, and presented both of them, as well as a hybrid version, to the Chief Marketing Officer and her lieutenants. It was clear that they liked it, but we figured that was that. We thought they would then go to one of the large consultancies for the larger implementation of the strategy we proposed. I assumed that this project would be put aside. However, within two weeks they came back to us and requested a proposal for the bigger project.
But they saw the trend to fewer letters caused by the rise of email in particular. For this reason, they wanted to expand the quality and volume of package mailing while, at the same time, improving the efficiency and ease of mailing all items. One thing we learned very quickly is that the Postal Service is highly adept in engineering. The chief marketing officer knew that was the way to go forward. DB: We employed a dozen design research methods.
We developed a wide variety of scenarios to understand the architecture of decision-making, we used extensive role playing, and we employed a variety of techniques in user observation. We sent students to photograph people at work at the Postal Service. We assigned students to go into local branch offices and pose questions about rules and processes.
For example, one student went to a post office and spoke only in German in asking questions about how to mail a letter. DB: Well, it turned out that the postal worker behind the counter happened to speak fluent German!
But we tried that with Korean and other languages, too. We experimented with all kinds of scenarios. We were gathering experiences. In all cases, we wanted to know what information people needed and how we might best structure access to information for improved user experience. Interpretation is a key part of the process.
This is a mistake people make: You can go and shoot photos of people at work and think you know what it all means, but there are subtle aspects that need sophisticated interpretation. For example, we observed postal workers at their workstations in many post offices around the country. They all had lots of little pieces of paper taped to the wall above their workstations.
All of those scraps of paper? They were signs of a system that was broken, because everyone was creating their own subsystem. DB: We produced three fundamental documents. This was for users in organizations of small and moderate size. Rules, rates, and regulations for these organizations—for example, Time Life—are exceptionally complex. All of this had to be approved by the Postal Regulatory Commission, appointed by Congress, and lots of lawyers and trade unions, because work rules were also embedded in these documents.
We set out to build an archive of photos—a little girl opening a mailbox to find a letter inside, a customer and postal worker interacting across a counter—that sort of thing. Email and social media have eaten into their margin. The Postal Service has developed a lot of electronic tools.
You can do a lot online that you could not before. What do you make of that? DB: That would be impossible. The USPS is the seventh largest employer in the world and has the largest civilian fleet of vehicles in the world. And the post office is part of our cultural life. Mailing letters is fundamental to the culture of the U. It predates the Constitution. Ben Franklin was the first postmaster general, and mail was being stamped and delivered up and down the colonies before the Revolutionary War.
The ability to communicate this way is part of what we think of as freedom. W: You also did a user-centered design project for the Australian taxation system. DB: Over the course of my work on these projects, I gained great respect for bureaucrats.
These are dedicated people with incredible levels of knowledge. One hears stories about the failures of government and its bureaucrats, and there are failures. But that is not the norm. DB: All of these are systems needed to keep society functioning. Their policies and procedures make things happen. Organizations—particularly in the emerging world we see today—have to adapt and change their systems to meet the new world.
In the past, organizations expected people to adapt to the organization. That time is past. It is the organization that must adapt to the needs and capabilities of people. W: User-centered design is not just for private companies trying to attract customers, then. DB: Government is the biggest purchaser of design in the United States—mainly in the areas of engineering, defense, health, and other services.
But what kind of design is needed today? With our project for the USPS, design penetrated to an agency directly involved in serving people. From that has come a lot of work in public sector design in the social services and medical fields, among others, in the United States as well as in other countries around the world.
W: What makes the difference between a functioning and a non-functioning bureaucracy? DB: There are three levels. You need leaders who hold and create a vision, managers who execute the vision, and bureaucrats who create rules and processes.
Each of these parts is essential. DB: My tastes are eclectic, but I listen to a lot of jazz. Lately, a pianist I really like is Aaron Parks. His debut album, Invisible Cinema , is a breakthrough record. She is a saxophone player from Denmark. W: Churchill is a good example of the visionary leaders you were talking about a moment ago. Check back for our next conversation!
Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University cultivates creativity, innovation, and purpose-driven leadership to design a better world. W: You were the head of the design school at Carnegie Mellon at the time. W: How did the project expand on the pilot?
W: What was your process? W: How did that work out? W: What fixes did you provide? W: Bureaucracies have a reputation for being difficult to deal with, though. W: On a personal note, what kind of music do you listen to? W: What are you reading at the moment?
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Richard Buchanan (academic) - Wikipedia
For all of our sophisticated and often technical discussions of user experience, there is one area of experience that we have found difficult, if not impossible, to consider with the same degree of sophistication. In a time when we are obsessed with big data and facts, we have forgotten how to talk about principles and creativity without resorting to theories of cognitive psychology and the social sciences.
My presentation will introduce a different perspective on creativity that goes beyond the craft of design process and will explore what principles are as the foundation of the flourishing enterprise. Uday Gajendar introduced our closing speaker, Dick Buchanan.
We have had quite a lineage of closing speakers at Enterprise UX. We are continuing that lineage and level of discussion today. Dick studied rhetoric at the University of Chicago, and then was the head of the school of design at Carnegie Mellon.
He is a done significant work in service design on a large scale USPS, for example. When Uday was in the Interaction Design program at CMU, there were about 20 students left in this seminar, towards the end of the semester. They were wrapping up the semester, and he calmly wrote down the canonical steps of user-centered design.
If someone was to walk in right now, read these steps and perform these actions, are they designers? He introduced the idea of noumenal ; there is an X-Factor beyond those steps. This closing keynote will hopefully likewise open our mind in new ways. He felt like he was home this week, with real people that make a difference. He has been working a lot with management and with executives, because he thought that designers needed to understand organizations really well, and organizations need to better understand design.
Design Thinking emerged and continued from the third course. The realized that NPD needed to include engineering, and also that Marketing and Strategy had to be part of design. That is the nature of design thinking. We had to change the old concept of marketing. Historically it was about selling products, finding segments, and pressing ahead with products.
The new Marketing is about preparing users or customers for the new kind of products that will emerge. The old Strategy involved looking at competitors, but the new strategy is understanding what that future world will be. Design thinking has to consider new technologies and other things as well. Those three features make effective Design Thinking, but their programs were unusual in that respect. The curious moment comes with third order design — activities, services, processes.
That is fundamentally what this group is about. Here is where it gets a little funny. But at the same time, there is going to be another practice that emerges.
They did it because they knew the other consulting companies, but they thought that people was key. This move into environments, organizations, and systems — that is fourth order design. He wants to explain that carefully. Fourth order design is about understanding that structure. What he has taken away of this meeting. A few have touched on fourth-order issues. Hard to characterize what they do. He has called it Dialectical Design. Looking back, he reflects on how they worked.
The common practice is a discussion, a conversation — a strategic conversation at a very high level in an organization, where conversations take place in an effort to find the core ideas that animate the work we do.
A good strategic conversation can take months. A dialectic is when two people are talking together. In the fourth order, the designer become a facilitator.
This is a very curious thing. George Nelson said that we are a humble service profession and it is less significant than the lives of the people we serve. What do we mean by experience in an EUX conference? This idea is still molten, still taking shape. He is less interested in user experience, but rather in the experience of people. He is not interested in lifestyles, but rather in their life. He is looking at the individual lives of people both inside and outside the company.
That begins to look towards a value or a principle. Herb Simon would call them rules of thumb, rather than a principle. An idea or a value that gives unity to an enterprise, a system, a product, or an experience. Not only are some of us moving into fourth order design.
There are principles that guide our actions. They need to be discovered and shared. Rather than sustainability, he thinks the word is flourishing communities, flourishing organizations.
That is a principle for him. There are first principles, the deep ones are ones we value and understanding. He is going to invite people to talk about this in Shanghai — it has to be non-trivial discussion. Surprised how often it has been surfaced — it is in the area. Big companies have forgotten principles. How do we embed them in the services that are provided.
Designers need to discover those prices. But we have to avoid being caught up too much in processes and techniques. We are on the verge of new discussions. What he sees emerging is stunning, surprising. All over the world, there are projects taking shape that are engaging social innovation and transformation, Designers are facilitating those, and letting people carry it forward.
There is a book coming out in Australia about fourth order design, he will write the introduction. That work has exploded into all sorts of other services there. He spoke in South Africa about fourth order design, and they changed their taxation system there as well.
This kind of spread, a new way of engaging. We saw the broader social impact in some presentations today — like the designmatters effort, those impressed him. That is the new practice he is taking about. Moving into these new areas is remarkable. Users are creatures of designers and whims — and we design for those.
In China they create those. Strangers have a want or a need to be served by us. Neighbors are people who have wants and needs that evolve and change over time.
You treat them differently, meeting them as they change and evolve. Friends are people whose lives we want to enrich, not just commercially. That becomes a very significant driver. Just as the provider has a notion of the user, so too does the user have a notion of the provider:.
There are foes. The last one — friends. Is there a company or product that you like so much that when the product fucks up, you want to help the company. We all know of companies, that we make up the extra distance service recovery.
Providers are gracious, and they do a little extra. Sometimes they just do a little extra. A test for employment — when someone arrives at a hotel at 10 pm, can you read them? Do they want to talk? Do they want to sleep? That is how they make hires, on the ability to read what the customer wants and needs. In China, they will not be able to eat our lunch yet because their companies still hinge on second order manufacturing and software.
That is what this is about:. The culture in China is facing that as a problem. They have to get past first and second order design. WeChat is an amazing app, and there are other local brands like Bidu emerging. He is a powerful, intelligent man.
Hired to be COO at Bidu but he is resigning. They said that he was leaving for family reasons, and to return to the United States but the truth is somewhat different.