This is a core medical task, but beset with difficulties. Stanford 's Online Strategy. Participants also described the prisoners ' despair and the despairing prison setting, touching on their own sense of vulnerability and despair. The purpose of this paper is to outline research which fellony to explore psychotherapists' experience of working with despair, in the UK prison setting, through a qualitative phenomenological approach. The future is amazing. Men reported that their perpetrators in worst-case…. Within the study, ten psychotherapists were Experimental implants for felony inmates as to their experience of working with clients in despair in the prison Experimental implants for felony inmates.
Three striped field mouse. Commentary
This type of technology is Shemale with big to be happening to inmates across the country. Racism on Trial By Alex P. This felkny makes my non-existent penis hurt just thinking about it. Or you might get cut wrong and bleed to death before you can get off the floor. Recruitment Potential participants were randomly selected from a list of all inmates at a particular prison provided by the two Departments of Corrective Services several days prior to interviews . Why introduce another constitutional issue for Experimental implants for felony inmates a minimal improvement in identification technology? Learn how your comment data is processed. I wasn't his lover Experimental implants for felony inmates he got it, so I was quite surprised when I "discovered" it. A fixed station monitor reports by telephone and there can be either real time or a once a day report depending on how much the monitoring agency is willing to pay. Im not sure Experimentak the point is. This amounted to clinical negligence, an expert in vascular medicine told the inquiry. An Introduction to Tissue-Biomaterial Interactions.
Our prison system is broken.
- An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.
- The season finale of "24" included the implanting of a microchip in a teenager to track his whereabouts.
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They were a weak Family, a saddening and pitiable one, dulled by chemicals and dehumanized by bracelets. This Perfect Day, p. Card technologies, nonetheless, which are items car- ried by personnel, can also be lost or stolen, and photograph identity badges can also be falsely replicated. RFID implantables are, theoretically, not transferable and thus ensure a better level of security than traditional techniques.
They are injected into the human body, in the same way that implants are injected into animals. These are implants for control purposes e. A control-related human-centric applica- tion of RFID is any human use of an implanted RFID transponder that allows an implantee to have power over an aspect of their lives, or that al- lows a third party to have power over an implantee. A convenience-related human-centric application of RFID is any human use of an implanted RFID transponder that increases the ease with which tasks are performed.
A care-related human-centric application of RFID is any human use of an implanted RFID transponder where the functionality is associated with medicine, health or wellbeing Michael and Masters, Mann , plotted a graph for wearable devices based on their existentiality against their wearability, distinguishing between the degree of user control on the one hand versus the portability on the other.
Courtesy of Kevin Warwick. Clarke predicted very early on that it was only a matter of time before implantables in animals found themselves a use in humans. RFID bracelets have been used since the mids for home detention, extended supervision orders, prison inmate tracking and monitoring. For example, parolees on extended supervision orders who might be implanted would be given the opportunity to undergo rehabilitation without the added stigma- tisation from observers for past felonies or misdemeanours Michael et al.
Similarly, people who have been charged with a crime but not yet tried or convicted could be granted bail and monitored electronically via the use of implantables, remaining innocent until proven guilty. In the same 4. For example, the theft of corporate laptops was highly prevalent around the peak of the dot.
Assets can then be linked to employees who may loan the equipment or are responsible for the safe-keeping of the equipment. In the case of the Baja Beach Club, both employees and club patrons were given the opportunity to receive implants. The employees used the implants to gain access to restricted areas in the Club e.
With re- spect to the CityWatcher. It should be noted that in both instances, implantation was not mandatory. Both programmes have now been discontinued and there have been no o cial documents identifying the major and minor outcomes of the deployments. Ironically, the CityWatcher. The three biggest hurdles had to do with the actual location of the implantable de- vice in the human body, as designated by the vendor at the back of the triceps of the upper right arm ; the location of the RFID readers too high for some members of the population, such as those with wheelchair access requirements or short people ; and the complexity of getting the implants implanted into willing participants, as it required a number of personnel to be engaged in the end-to-end procedure IT manager, nurse or doctor, end user, management for witnessing consent etc.
When interviewed and explicitly asked about social, ethical or legal dilemmas and the risks related to the implantation of humans, represen- tatives from both cases, Baja Beach Club and CityWatcher. Additionally, both representatives were passionate about the possibility that one day all humans might indeed never have to worry about carry- ing wallets, that credit card fraud would diminish, and that identity fraud would be eradicated.
When asked about some of the major challenges, such as the cloning of implants, electronic viruses on implants Gasson, , the need for continual upgrades, dysfunctional implants, and members of 6. Indeed, according to the interviewees, all risks were simply considered to be teething problems of an emerging technology and would be overcome in the very short-term, similar to the security con- trols introduced since the inception of the Internet.
The risk versus reward question was not a point of contention — the rewards would outweigh any plausible risks, according to the two key informant interviewees. The implant controversy has to do with the potential for all human beings to be implanted with what seems a liberating technology i. However, microchip implants are in reality a technology of controls, limits and rights.
There is a great deal of literature on the digital divide, but the divide that might eventuate as a result of implants is particularly radical and has not been commensurately addressed. The introduction of poten- tially culture-shifting techniques is invariably surrounded by controversies in clashes of policy, law, society, and philosophical and religious beliefs.
In this instance, we have seen the enactment of anti-chipping laws in the United States Friggieri et al. Invariably, what follows after such activity of heightened concern by an advocacy-based non-government organisation NGO or grass-roots community lobby group is a slow period in product adoption. At this very moment we are at that fork in the road with respect to the human implant controversy.
This experi- ment allowed a computer to monitor Warwick as he moved through halls and o ces at his workplace, using a unique identifying signal emitted by the implanted chip. He could operate doors, lights, heaters and other comput- ers without physical interaction Michael and Michael, Courtesy of Eduardo Kac.
Thus, Eduardo Kac preempted philosophical debate on the question of implants with his Time Capsule work and Kevin Warwick demonstrated the implant 9. Kac and Warwick saw into the future, years before its enactment. VeriChip was a subsidiary of Applied Digital Solutions, a commercial entity who became a reseller in the pioneering human implantable space, after acquiring an ani- mal ID transponder implant company. Doc- tor John Halamka, Harvard Medical School Chief Information O cer, and others in the medical fraternity at the time, were convinced at the value proposition of human implantables.
Graafstra , and others like him e. Mikey Sklar and Jonathan Oxer , pioneered human implantables of a non- commercial nature for custom built home applications, being dubbed do- it-yourselfer RFID implantees by observers. For Graafstra, the VeriChip In fact, he was clearly not in favour of getting an implant that possessed anti-migration coating and that was under the control of a third party, injected so deep into the body Graafstra et al. It was implanted by a family doctor using an Avid Injector Kit similar to the ones used on pets.
He can access his front door, car door, and log into his computer using his implants. Courtesy of Amal Graafstra. However, living people are not the only ones who could be chipped; other human-centric cases have been documented by the media.
Due to the sporadic nature of news reports on the chipping of the deceased during disasters and times of crisis, it is unknown whether or not the chip- pings were done by VeriChip or other vendors. Despite the birth of the human-centric microchip implant for control and convenience solutions coming before the establishment of the VeriChip Corporation, the authors felt that it was important to document how the innovation came about in a commercial setting.
By understanding where we have come from we can gain insights into where we are heading and at what velocity. Today, consumers are becoming increasingly aware of body-wearable technologies, yet the vast majority of people are still oblivious to the fact that there existed implantable solutions for non-medical related applications, such as access control, as far back as The reader must also gain the ability to contrast between the various motivations for microchipping people — e.
The VeriChip organisation probably had a technology that the global market was not ready for back in Follow- ing this, two detailed cases of VeriChip customers are presented, showing the implementation of the implantable system at the Baja Beach Club and CityWatcher. The dominant source data presented in the main body of this chapter stem from primary interviews conducted with employees of the companies, considered to be key informants of the cases by the very nature of their involvement in the human implantable programs.
Retherford is currently a business developer at LogicWorks Inc. At the time , VeriChip was a subsidiary of an advanced technology com- pany, Applied Digital Solutions, which owned several companies and was well-known for its innovative Digital Angel application. This was still in its developmental infancy in but was marketed on the Internet as an end-to-end turnkey solution.
Despite Destron Fearing denying this on numerous occasions early on in the acqui- sition, it did ultimately play a role in that development, at least in being able to convey its experiences from its animal ID chip business in location tracking and transportation monitoring.
The VeriChip Corporation launched its own brand in and then purportedly cut business ties with Ap- plied Digital Corporation, which withdrew from the public eye for about two years. In summary, three points needs to be emphasised. Secondly, that there are marketable solutions for micro-chipping people that have changed in guise over time. Thirdly, this development began with a parent company that said they would never go into microchipping people, who then bought out a livestock ID company, and then went in for micro-chipping people when the political landscape changed after the September 11 attacks.
VeriChip received clearance from the FDA to distribute its RFID transponder as a medical device in Kahan, , despite the fact that a family had already been chipped in Florida, in Scheeres, There were a number of Veri centres where the procedure could take place in the United States.
This thread makes my non-existent penis hurt just thinking about it. Views Read Edit View history. Retrieved 12 March Search for:. Class I devices include simple devices such as arm slings and hand-held surgical instruments. In the case of an allergic foreign body response, the implant would have to be removed.
Experimental implants for felony inmates. Dr Con Man: the rise and fall of a celebrity scientist who fooled everyone
Metallic glasses based on magnesium with zinc and calcium addition are tested as the potential metallic biomaterials for biodegradable medical implants. Patient with orthopaedic implants sometimes need to be put under magnetic resonance imaging MRI machine for detailed musculoskeletal study.
A study of orthopaedic implants in has shown that majority of the orthopaedic implants does not react with magnetic fields under the 1. Electrical implants are being used to relieve pain and suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. The electric implant is embedded in the neck of patients with rheumatoid arthritics, the implant sends electrical signals to electrodes in the vagus nerve.
Contraceptive implants are primarily used to prevent unintended pregnancy and treat conditions such as non-pathological forms of menorrhagia. Examples include copper - and hormone -based intrauterine devices. Cosmetic implants — often prosthetics — attempt to bring some portion of the body back to an acceptable aesthetic norm.
They are used as a follow-up to mastectomy due to breast cancer , for correcting some forms of disfigurement , and modifying aspects of the body as in buttock augmentation and chin augmentation. Examples include the breast implant , nose prosthesis , ocular prosthesis , and injectable filler.
Other types of organ dysfunction can occur in the systems of the body, including the gastrointestinal , respiratory , and urological systems. Implants are used in those and other locations to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease , gastroparesis , respiratory failure , sleep apnea , urinary and fecal incontinence , and erectile dysfunction.
Medical devices are classified by the US Food and Drug Administration FDA under three different classes depending on the risks the medical device may impose on the user. According to 21CFR Class I devices include simple devices such as arm slings and hand-held surgical instruments. Class II devices include X-ray systems and physiological monitors. Class III devices include replacement heart valves and implanted cerebellar stimulators.
A variety of minimally bioreactive metals are implanted. All of these are made passive by a thin layer of oxide on their surface. Stainless steel remains subject to corrosion, and is therefore only used for temporary implants, while the titanium and cobalt-chrome alloys can be implanted indefinitely.
A consideration, however, is that metal ions do diffuse outward through the oxide, and end up in the surrounding tissue. Bioreaction to metal implants includes the formation of a small envelope of fibrous tissue. The thickness of this layer is determined by the products being dissolved, and the extent to which the implant moves around within the enclosing tissue.
Pure titanium, a preferred implant material, may have only a minimal fibrous encapsulation. Stainless steel, on the other hand, may elicit encapsulation of as much as 2 mm. Under ideal conditions, implants should initiate the desired host response. Ideally, the implant should not cause any undesired reaction from neighboring or distant tissues. However, the interaction between the implant and the tissue surrounding the implant can lead to complications.
Common complications include infection , inflammation , and pain. Other complications that can occur include risk of rejection from implant-induced coagulation and allergic foreign body response. Depending on the type of implant, the complications may vary. When the site of an implant becomes infected during or after surgery, the surrounding tissue becomes infected by microorganisms.
Three main categories of infection can occur after operation. Superficial immediate infections are caused by organisms that commonly grow near or on skin. The infection usually occurs at the surgical opening. Deep immediate infection, the second type, occurs immediately after surgery at the site of the implant.
Skin-dwelling and airborne bacteria cause deep immediate infection. These bacteria enter the body by attaching to the implant's surface prior to implantation.
Though not common, deep immediate infections can also occur from dormant bacteria from previous infections of the tissue at the implantation site that have been activated from being disturbed during the surgery. The last type, late infection, occurs months to years after the implantation of the implant.
Late infections are caused by dormant blood-borne bacteria attached to the implant prior to implantation. The blood-borne bacteria colonize on the implant and eventually get released from it. Depending on the type of material used to make the implant, it may be infused with antibiotics to lower the risk of infections during surgery. However, only certain types of materials can be infused with antibiotics, the use of antibiotic-infused implants runs the risk of rejection by the patient since the patient may develop a sensitivity to the antibiotic, and the antibiotic may not work on the bacteria.
Inflammation, a common occurrence after any surgical procedure, is the body's response to tissue damage as a result of trauma, infection, intrusion of foreign materials, or local cell death , or as a part of an immune response.
Inflammation starts with the rapid dilation of local capillaries to supply the local tissue with blood. The inflow of blood causes the tissue to become swollen and may cause cell death.
The excess blood, or edema, can activate pain receptors at the tissue. The site of the inflammation becomes warm from local disturbances of fluid flow and the increased cellular activity to repair the tissue or remove debris from the site.
Implant-induced coagulation is similar to the coagulation process done within the body to prevent blood loss from damaged blood vessels. However, the coagulation process is triggered from proteins that become attached to the implant surface and lose their shapes. When this occurs, the protein changes conformation and different activation sites become exposed, which may trigger an immune system response where the body attempts to attack the implant to remove the foreign material.
The trigger of the immune system response can be accompanied by inflammation. The immune system response may lead to chronic inflammation where the implant is rejected and has to be removed from the body.
The immune system may encapsulate the implant as an attempt to remove the foreign material from the site of the tissue by encapsulating the implant in fibrinogen and platelets. The encapsulation of the implant can lead to further complications, since the thick layers of fibrous encapsulation may prevent the implant from performing the desired functions.
Bacteria may attack the fibrous encapsulation and become embedded into the fibers. Since the layers of fibers are thick, antibiotics may not be able to reach the bacteria and the bacteria may grow and infect the surrounding tissue.
In order to remove the bacteria, the implant would have to be removed. Penile implants appear to be fairly common among prisoners and are associated with risky sexual and drug use practices. Harm reduction and infection control strategies need to be developed to address this potential risk. Penile implants are inert objects placed beneath the skin of the penis through an incision and are variously referred to as Yakuza beads, pearls, penile implants, penile beads, penile nodules, penile inserts, speed bumps, and penile marbles in the English literature  — .
Objects placed underneath the skin of the penile shaft may include ball bearings, plastic beads made from toothbrushes, glass, metal pellets, silicon, precious metals, marbles or pearls   — .
The practice is distinct from inflatable prostheses or semi-rigid bars to treat impotence. Reports of penile implanting usually appear in the form of case studies in the clinical literature or in qualitative research studies   — . Anthropologists have documented that inserting objects under the penile skin, as part of cultural traditions, has been practised for centuries in the Asia and Pacific region.
Men in North and Southeast Asia have a long history of inserting bells, balls and other irregular objects under the skin of their penis. In Australia, some Aboriginal men have been reported to observe a tradition of placing small stones inside penile incisions .
Some men believe that penile implants enhance the sexual pleasure and make them unforgettable to women, and in some cases, discourage men from practicing sodomy   — . Studies among different groups suggests that penile implants were used to increase sexual confidence, as self-ornamentation, to reinforce masculinity and as a marker for attaining manhood, as a symbol of affiliation to a certain group, practiced in partner sadism, for revenge by deliberately causing harm through sex or rape of sex workers and women with multiple partners or among women who had refused sexual invitations, or were adopted as a result of peer pressure or curiosity  —     —   .
In Bali, men were encouraged by their peers to have penile implants to increase their chances of obtaining free oral or anal sexual services from commercial sex workers and for a better sexual experience. The origins of the custom among prisoners of inserting penile implants date back to the 18th century among the yakuza Japanese gangsters as a demonstration of their loyalty to the clan  — .
Case reports and studies of prisoners and ex-prisoners in Eastern Europe, the United States, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia suggest that this population may be gradually adopting the practice     . In prison, beads made from spoons, toothbrushes, dominoes or chopsticks have been reported as being inserted    .
Other penile implants included beads made from melted toothpaste tube caps, buttons, rubber erasers, dice, or deodorant roller balls   . Wardi's study of Indonesian prisoners suggests that the practice has become inter-generational inside prison. Making, polishing and subcutaneously inserting the penile beads in the foreskin is one method for prisoners to stimulate themselves and prevent boredom in a place with few recreational activities and, at the same time, provide them with an income from selling and inserting the finished penile beads into other prisoners .
Prison officers in Papua New Guinea also believe that the practice is the result of boredom and a way for prisoners to pass the time in prison . In US prisons, hygiene was reported to be problematic because requests for antiseptics could lead to intense questioning from prison health staff. Focus groups with prisoners found that they were reluctant to present themselves for treatment at prison clinics if their genitals became infected for fear of being punished by prison authorities.
In Indonesia, despite threats of punishment from prison authorities if caught, continuing to implant penile nodules and beads was seen as a form of political resistance against the domination of the prison establishment . Penile inserts are known to result in a number of medical complications  —    —    — . Reports include penile oedema and erythema, throbbing pain and inflammation after insertion, and penile infections and abscesses   .
Artificial modification of the penis can result in sexual difficulties such as erectile dysfunction or partner vaginal trauma, and can sometimes prevent penetration   . Women, including wives and female sex workers, have complained of pain during intercourse    , and implants have been known to cause bleeding and damage to their vagina and cervix . Penile implants can possibly increase the transmission of HIV, other sexually transmissible infections STIs and blood borne viruses as they can contribute to condom breakage, leakage, and incorrect fit .
Transmission of blood borne viruses can occur if the person who is performing the incision is exposed to the other person's blood  . Interviews with Indonesian fishermen further suggest that STI and blood borne viruses transmission could occur when men who have recently had penile implants engage in intercourse with sex workers before their incision wounds have healed .
We report, for the first time, the prevalence of penile implants in a large sample of Australian prisoners and describe factors associated with penile implants. The survey utilised a computer-assisted telephone interview CATI format . To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this [CATI] approach has been used to screen a prisoner sample in an epidemiological survey. The overall response rate to the survey was Potential participants were randomly selected from a list of all inmates at a particular prison provided by the two Departments of Corrective Services several days prior to interviews .
The quota of prisoners sampled at each facility was proportional to the size of the prisoner population at that site. The sample was generated at the individual prison as close to the interview period as possible to minimise loss due to releases, transfers to other prisons, and other types of absences from the prison e.
This was due to the high cost of travelling to these sites and other logistical difficulties such as a lack of telephone access. Those selected were provided with a verbal explanation of the study by a recruiter attached to the research team, not the custodial authorities, and provided with a printed information sheet and consent form. The information sheet explained that certain demographic and criminographic information e. Participants were reassured that the phone call would not be electronically eavesdropped by the custodial authorities and that they could withdraw at any time without consequence.
Those inmates who were unavailable, ineligible, or refused to participate were replaced by randomly selected replacements. A unique study code was generated for each inmate to avoid any possibility of identification. Once the survey information had been linked to the demographic and criminographic information provided by the Departments of Corrective Services, the identifying information was removed. Following the completion of the interview, participants were de-briefed by the recruiter with the option of organising a referral to a counsellor or the health clinic in the prison if needed.
Telephone interviews were conducted by a private social market research company located in central Sydney. The prison interviews took place in a private space often a legal visits room or consulting room in the health clinic and lasted on average about 30 minutes range: 19 to 60 minutes.
The setting for the interview was chosen to provide privacy for the participant with no custodial officer or researcher present in the room during the interview. The telephone had a headset and microphone attached and, at the insistence of the custodial authorities, was designed such that outside calls could not be made on the device.
This study utilised a modified version of the questionnaire used in the Australian Study of Health and Relationships ASHR Survey with minor modifications of wording to allow for the lower literacy of this sample and the addition of further sections on experiences in prison  . The survey questionnaire covered a broad range of sexual health issues including: sexual identification, sexual attraction, first sex experience e.
Univariate logistic regression and forward stepwise multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the independent predictors for penile implants. All analyses were performed using Stata Of the 2, male inmates surveyed, 5. No significant differences were detected between those with and without penile implants in relation to self-reported erectile problems or pain in the penis.
Nor were there differences with regard to self-reported mental health problems i. None of those with penile implants identified as homosexual. In adjusted analysis, a younger age, birth in an Asian country, and prior incarceration remained significantly associated with penile implants.
This confirms case reports among clinicians who suggest that penile implants are not uncommon among incarcerated populations  —   — . In this study, the likelihood of having a penile implant increased with younger age, possibly suggesting that the incidence of the practice is increasing among prisoners. Having an Australian Indigenous background was not significantly associated with penile implants.
Men with penile implants had a higher probability of using illicit drugs in prison, of being paid for sex, and having piercings and tattoos in prison, indicating riskier lifestyles than the average prisoner.
Apart from this study, there is a lack of knowledge on penile implants in Australian prisons. It is not known how widespread the practice is across all jurisdictions, how the practice is performed in prison, its impact on disease transmission and infection rates, and other adverse clinical outcomes. We are unaware of any directives or health policies in Australian correctional settings regarding this practice, possibly because it has rarely been studied in prison sexual health research.
Undertaking procedures such as inserting penile implants while in prison in the absence of proper infection control measures is fraught with potential risks such as infections at the site of insertion and acquiring bloodborne viruses. In the absence of this, providing access to antiseptic solutions could provide some protection against infection. Our findings suggest that, at minimum, prison health education campaigns should include information on the risks associated with penile implanting in unsterile conditions.
Prison health staff need to emphasise seeking treatment immediately if prisoners experience pain, swelling, redness and infection as a result of any artificial modifications to their penises. A limitation of this study is that we had no way of validating the self-report, particularly in regard to the practice of interest to this study — penile implants. It is possible that some participants, particularly men, overestimated their sexual activities  — .
Conversely, some women may have under reported sexual activity. We cannot exclude the possibility that some individuals provided socially desirable responses. However, this did not appear to be borne out by the response to sensitive questions such as engagement with sex workers, engagement in sex before the age of consent, and histories of sexually transmitted infections.
As these findings are based on cross-sectional data, causal inferences cannot be made. Penile implants appear to be fairly common among prisoners and associated with prisoners engaging in other risky sexual and drug use practices.
Reengineering sentencing, incarceration, and rehabilitation: Future of law P4 | Quantumrun
Our prison system is broken. Given that the US has the world's largest prison population, it's future evolution has an outsized impact on how the rest of the world thinks about managing criminals. This is why the US system is the focus of this chapter. Prison reform has been a hot-button political issue for decades. Traditionally, no politician wants to look weak on crime and few in the public give much thought to the well-being of criminals.
The direct result of these policies was an explosion in the prison population from under , in roughly inmates per , to 1. These side effects, in addition to a variety of emerging societal and technological trends, are leading to a broad, bipartisan movement towards comprehensive criminal justice reform.
The main trends leading this shift include:. The US doesn't have enough prisons to humanely house its total inmate population, with the Federal Bureau of Prisons reporting an average over-capacity rate of roughly 36 percent. Graying inmate population. Prisons are slowly becoming the US' largest care provider for senior citizens, with the number of inmates over 55 nearly quadrupling between and On average, caring for elderly inmates can cost between two to four times what it currently costs to imprison a person in their 20s or 30s.
Caring for the mentally ill. Similar to the point above, prisons are slowly becoming the US' largest care provider for people with serious mental illnesses. Healthcare overruns. Chronically high recidivism. Given the lack of education and resocialization programs in prisons, the lack of post-release support, as well as the barriers to traditional employment for ex-convicts, the recidivism rate is chronically high well over 50 percent leading to a revolving door of people entering and then re-entering the prison system.
Future economic recession. This will lead to a shrinking of the middle class and a shrinking of the tax base they generate—a factor that will affect future funding of the justice system. Without a substantial change, this figure will grow substantially by Conservative shift. This shift will eventually make it easier for justice reform bills to secure enough bipartisan votes to pass into law. Shifting public perceptions around drug use.
Supporting this ideological shift is the support from the general public for reducing sentencing for drug-related crimes. In particular, there is less public appetite for criminalizing addiction, as well as broad support for the decriminalization of drugs like marijuana. Growing activism against racism. Given the rise of the Black Lives Matter movement and the current cultural dominance of political correctness and social justice, politicians are feeling growing public pressure to reform laws that disproportionately target and criminalize the poor, minorities and other marginalized members of society.
New technology. A variety of new technologies are beginning to enter the prison market with the promise of substantially reducing the cost of running prisons and supporting inmates after release. The economic, cultural, and technological trends coming to bear on our criminal justice system is slowly evolving the approach our governments take towards sentencing, incarceration, and rehabilitation.
Starting with sentencing, these trends will eventually:. Meanwhile, by the early s, judges will begin using data-driven analytics to enforce evidence-based sentencing. At the political level, social pressures against the drug war will eventually see marijuana's full decriminalization by the late s, as well as mass pardons for the thousands currently locked up for its possession.
To further reduce the cost of prison overpopulation, pardons, and early parole hearings will be offered to many thousands of non-violent inmates. Finally, lawmakers will begin a process of rationalizing the legal system to reduce the number of special-interest written laws on the books and reduce the total number of law violations that demand prison time. To reduce the strain on the criminal court system, the sentencing of misdemeanors, low-level felonies and select forms of business and family law cases will be decentralized to smaller community courts.
Early trials of these courts have proven successful , producing a 10 percent drop in recidivism and a 35 percent drop in offenders being sent to jail. These numbers were achieved by having these courts engrain themselves within the community.
With this structure, offenders get to maintain their family ties, avoid a financially crippling criminal record, and avoid the creation of relationships with criminal influences that would be common inside the prison environment. Luckily, the same trends currently working to reform criminal sentencing is also beginning to reform our prison system. By the late s, prisons will have nearly completed their transition from brutish, overly expensive cages into rehabilitation centers that also happen to include detention units.
The goal of these centers will be to work with inmates to understand and remove their motivation to participate in criminal behavior, while also helping them to reconnect with the outside world in a productive and positive manner through education and training programs.
How these future prisons will look and operate in reality can be broken down into four key points:. Prison design. A concept by the firm, KMD Architects, envisions a detention center example one and two that's made up of three buildings separated by level of security,. Inmates are assigned to these respective buildings based on their pre-assessed threat level, as outlined by the evidence-based sentencing described above.
The design of this prison structure has already been used with much success for juvenile detention facilities but has yet to transfer over to adult prisons. Technology in the cage. To complement these design changes, new technologies will become widespread in future prisons that will make them safer for both the inmates and the prison guards, thereby reducing the overall stress and violence that's widespread inside our penitentiaries. For example, while video surveillance is common throughout modern prisons, they will soon be combined with AI which can automatically detect suspicious or violent behavior and alert the normally understaffed prison guard team on duty.
Other prison tech that will likely become common by the s include:. Dynamic security. In these prisons, inmates are watched, controlled, caged, and limited in the amount of interaction they can have with other inmates and with guards. In a dynamic security environment, the emphasis is on preventing those bad intentions outright. Security cameras are limited in number and inmates are given greater trust to move around without being chaperoned by guards.
Conflicts between inmates are identified early and resolved verbally with the assistance of a mediation expert. While this dynamic security style is currently used with great success in the Norwegian penal system , its implementation will likely be limited to lower security prisons in the rest of Europe and North America. Just as schools today are ranked and funded based on their ability to churn out students who meet a prescribed education level, prisons will be similarly ranked and funded based on their ability to lower recidivism rates.
Prisons will have an entire wing devoted to inmate therapy, education and skills training, as well as job placement services that help inmates secure a home and job post-release, and continue to support their employment for years after an extension of the parole service. The goal is to make inmates marketable in the job market by the time they are released so that they have a viable alternative to crime to support themselves.
However, new research into how the brain works are revealing entirely new potential alternatives to traditional incarceration. For example, studies investigating the brains of people with a history of criminality compared with the general public have revealed distinct differences that may explain a propensity for asocial and criminal behavior.
Once this science is refined, options outside of traditional incarceration may become possible, such as gene therapy and specialized brain surgeries—the goal being to heal any brain damage or cure any genetic component of an inmate's criminality that could lead to their reintegration into society.
By the late s, it will gradually become possible to "cure" a portion of the prison population with these types of procedures, opening the door for early parole or immediate release. Further into the future, the s, it will be possible to upload an inmate's brain into a virtual, Matrix-like world, while their physical body is confined to a hibernation pod. In this virtual world, inmates will occupy a virtual prison without any fear of violence from other prisoners.
This technology would permit centuries-long sentences—a topic we'll cover in the next chapter. The future of sentencing and incarceration is trending toward some truly positive changes.
Unfortunately, these advancements will take decades to effect, as many developing and authoritarian nations will likely not have the resources or interest in making these reforms.
These changes are nothing, however, compared to the legal precedents future technologies and cultural shifts will force into the public sphere. Click to register.
Skip to main content. Forecast Reengineering sentencing, incarceration, and rehabilitation: Future of law P4. By David Tal, Publisher, Futurist. Trends influencing change in the prison system Prison reform has been a hot-button political issue for decades. Rationalizing sentencing The economic, cultural, and technological trends coming to bear on our criminal justice system is slowly evolving the approach our governments take towards sentencing, incarceration, and rehabilitation.
Distributed court and legal system To reduce the strain on the criminal court system, the sentencing of misdemeanors, low-level felonies and select forms of business and family law cases will be decentralized to smaller community courts. How these future prisons will look and operate in reality can be broken down into four key points: Prison design.
Other prison tech that will likely become common by the s include: RFID bracelets are tracking devices that some prisons are currently experimenting with. They allow the prison control room to monitor inmates' whereabouts at all times, alerting guards to unusual concentrations of inmates or inmates entering restricted areas.
Eventually, once these tracking devices are implanted into the inmate, the prison will also be able to remotely track the inmate's health and even their levels of aggression by measuring their heartbeat and hormones in their bloodstream.
Teleconferencing rooms will allow doctors to provide medical checkups on inmates remotely. This will reduce the cost of transporting inmates from prisons to high-security hospitals, and it will allow fewer doctors to serve a larger number of inmates in need.
Cell phone jammers will restrict the ability of inmates, who gain access to cellphones illegally, to make outside calls to intimidate witnesses or give commands to gang members. Terrestrial and aerial patrol drones will be used to monitor common areas and cell blocks. Armed with multiple taser guns, they will also be used to quickly and remotely incapacitate inmates engaging in violence with other inmates or guards. The AI will inform the inmate of prison status updates, allow inmates to listen to or verbally write emails to family, allow the inmate to receive news and ask basic Internet queries.
Meanwhile, the AI will keep a detailed record of the inmate's actions and rehabilitation progress for later review by the parole board. Likelihood of happening rating. Quantumrun special series. Future of Law. The following popular and institutional links will give you a deeper insight about this forecast: io9. What will jail terms be like when humans can live for centuries?
Practical ethics. Enhanced punishment: can technology make life sentences longer? Business Insider. Sentencing Project. Hell on Earth. New York Times.