Transgender testerone therapy-Hormone therapy may increase cardiovascular risk during gender transition -- ScienceDaily

This form of hormone therapy is given as one of two types, based on whether the goal of treatment is feminization or masculinization :. Some intersex people may also undergo hormone therapy, either starting in childhood to confirm the sex they were assigned at birth , or later in order to align their sex with their gender identity. Non-binary or genderqueer people may also undergo hormone therapy in order to achieve a desired balance of sex hormones. Many centers how use an informed consent model that does not require any routine formal psychiatric evaluation but instead focuses on reducing barriers to care by ensuring a person can understand the risks, benefits, alternatives, unknowns, limitations, and risks of no treatment. The Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People SOC require that the patient be referred by a mental health professional who has diagnosed the patient with persistent gender dysphoria.

Transgender testerone therapy

Testosterone propionate. Cyproterone is a synthetic progestogen with a potent anti-androgenic Transgender testerone therapy. The optimal ranges listed for testosterone only apply to individuals taking bioidentical hormones Riding dirty with no vocals download the form of testosterone including esters Transgender testerone therapy do not apply to those taking synthetic AAS e. Dosing is patient specific and Transgendder discussed with the physician. What follows is a general primer on what these drugs are and how they affect the human body. This content does not have an English version. Depending on how you have sex, you may need to use birth control. Archived from the original PDF on New York: Routledge. Less widely understood are the hormone regimens used to modify the physiology of patients presenting with dysphoria.

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The Transgender testerone therapy for transsexualism include: [18]. Accessed Jan. The male hormone testosterone plays an important role in the development and maintenance of typical masculine physical characteristics, such as muscle mass and strength, and Erotic talk teats of facial and body hair. Your doctor should give you advice about how to address other health concerns and may give you information about support groups. Trans men are not always required to stop taking hormones before surgery. Transgender testerone therapy works by blocking testosterone receptors, Chyne sex video it is effective against androgen testosterone produced by the adrenal glands, as well as that produced by the testes. Follicle-stimulating hormone Human chorionic gonadotropin Luteinizing hormone Menotropin Urofollitropin. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from November All articles needing additional references Articles to be expanded from January All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Some intersex people may also undergo hormone therapy, either starting in childhood to confirm the sex they were assigned at birthor later in order to align their sex with their gender identity. It is not possible to reverse significant hair loss. If this is how you are feeling, hormone treatment testosterone if you are a trans man, and oestrogen if you are a trans woman may help to overcome your distress.

Transitioning refers to any physical, mental, or emotional change that a person makes in order to better reflect their gender identity.

  • This form of hormone therapy is given as one of two types, based on whether the goal of treatment is feminization or masculinization :.
  • While previous studies suggested a link between testosterone therapy and an increased risk in heart disease, currently the connection isn't clear.
  • Know the risks before you make your decision.

Transgender hormone therapy of the female-to-male FTM type, also known as masculinizing hormone therapy , is a form of hormone therapy and sex reassignment therapy which is used to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from feminine or androgynous to masculine. It is a type of transgender hormone therapy another being male-to-female , and is predominantly used to treat transgender men and other transmasculine individuals.

Some intersex people also receive this form of therapy, either starting in childhood to confirm the assigned sex or later if the assignment proves to be incorrect. The purpose of this form of therapy is to cause the development of the secondary sex characteristics of the desired sex , such as voice deepening and a masculine pattern of hair , fat , and muscle distribution.

It cannot undo many of the changes produced by naturally occurring puberty , which may necessitate surgery and other treatments to reverse. While the therapy cannot undo the effects of a person's first puberty , developing secondary sex characteristics associated with a different gender can relieve some or all of the distress and discomfort associated with gender dysphoria , and can help the person to "pass" or be seen as the gender they identify with.

Introducing exogenous hormones into the body impacts it at every level and many patients report changes in energy levels, mood, appetite, etc. Several contraindications to androgen therapy exist. Hormone therapy for transgender individuals has been shown in medical literature to be safe in adults, when supervised by a qualified medical professional.

Testosterone is metabolized by the cytochrome P enzyme system specifically CYP3A isoforms in the liver. There are certain drugs that increase or decrease the activity of cytochrome P enzymes and may cause increased or decreased levels of testosterone:. Because of these interactions, it is advised that trans men make their healthcare providers aware of their hormone therapy, when this is relevant to their treatment for other medical issues.

The elimination half-life of testosterone in blood is about 70 minutes, so it is necessary to have a continuous supply of the hormone for masculinization. These testosterone esters are mixed with different oils , so some individuals may tolerate one better than the other. A formulation of injected testosterone available in Europe and the United States, testosterone undecanoate Nebido, Aveed [3] [4] provides significantly improved testosterone delivery with far less variation outside the eugonadal range than other formulations with injections required only four times yearly.

The adverse side effects of injected testosterone esters are generally associated with high peak levels in the first few days after an injection. Some side effects may be ameliorated by using a shorter dosing interval weekly or every ten days instead of twice monthly with testosterone enanthate or testosterone cypionate. This benefit must be weighed against the discomfort and inconvenience of doubling the number of injections.

Injected testosterone esters should be started at a low dose and titrated upwards based on trough levels blood levels drawn just before your next shot. Both testosterone patches , creams and gels are available.

Both approximate normal physiological levels of testosterone better than the higher peaks associated with injection. Patches slowly diffuse testosterone through the skin and are replaced daily.

Transdermal testosterone is available throughout the world under the brand names Andromen Forte, Androgel, Testogel and Testim. They are absorbed quickly when applied and produce a temporary drug depot in the skin which diffuses into the circulation, peaking at 4 hours and decreasing slowly over the rest of the day. Case reports of significant virilization of young children after exposure to topical androgen preparations both prescription and 'supplement' products used by their caregivers demonstrates this very real risk.

Implants, as subcutaneous pellets, can be used to deliver testosterone brand name Testopel. This must be done in a physician's office, but is a relatively minor procedure done under local anesthetic.

Oral testosterone is provided exclusively as testosterone undecanoate. It is available in Europe and Canada, but not in the United States. Once absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract , testosterone is shunted at very high blood levels to the liver where it can cause liver damage albeit very rarely and worsens some of the adverse effects of testosterone, like lower HDL good cholesterol.

In addition, the first pass metabolism of the liver also may result in testosterone levels too low to provide satisfactory masculinization and suppress menses. Because of the short terminal half-life of testosterone, oral testosterone undecanoate must be administered two to four times per day, preferably with food which improves its absorption. In the FDA approved a buccal form of testosterone Striant.

Sublingual testosterone can also be made by some compounding pharmacies. Testosterone is absorbed through the oral mucosa and avoids the first-pass metabolism in the liver which is cause of many of the adverse effect with oral testosterone undecanoate.

The lozenge is 'mucoadhesive' and must be applied twice daily. Although many AAS are not potentiated in androgenic tissues, they have similar effects to testosterone in other tissues like bone , muscle , fat , and the voice box. Also, many AAS, like nandrolone esters, are aromatized into estrogens to a greatly reduced extent relative to testosterone or not at all, and for this reason, are associated with reduced or no estrogenic effects e.

For the sake of clarification, the term "anabolic—androgenic steroid" is essentially synonymous with "androgen" or with "anabolic steroid" , and that natural androgens like testosterone are also AAS. Dihydrotestosterone DHT referred to as androstanolone or stanolone when used medically can also be used in place of testosterone as an androgen.

In all people, the hypothalamus releases GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone to stimulate the pituitary to produce LH luteinizing hormone and FSH follicle-stimulating hormone which in turn cause the gonads to produce sex steroids. In adolescents of either sex with relevant indicators, GnRH analogues , such as leuprorelin can be used to suspend the advance of sex steroid induced, inappropriate pubertal changes for a period without inducing any changes in the gender-appropriate direction.

GnRH analogues work by initially over stimulating the pituitary then rapidly desensitizing it to the effects of GnRH. Over a period of weeks, gonadal androgen production is greatly reduced. There is considerable controversy over the earliest age, and for how long it is clinically, morally and legally safe to do this. The sex steroids do have important other functions. The high cost of GnRH analogues is often a significant factor.

Antiestrogens or so-called "estrogen blockers" like aromatase inhibitors AIs e. In addition, in those who have not yet undergone or completed epiphyseal closure which occurs during adolescence and is mediated by estrogen , antiestrogens can prevent hip widening as well as increase final height estrogen limits height by causing the epiphyses to fuse.

Progestogens can be used to control menstruation in transgender men. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate DMPA may be injected every three months just as it is used for contraception. Generally after the first cycle, menses are greatly reduced or eliminated. This may be useful for transgender men prior to initiation of testosterone therapy. In those who have not yet started or completed epiphyseal closure, growth hormone can be administered, potentially in conjunction with an aromatase inhibitor or a GnRH analogue, to increase final height.

Many transgender men are unable to pass as cisgender men without hormones. Facial changes develop gradually over time, and sexual dimorphism physical difference between the sexes tends to increase with age. Within a population of similar body size and ethnicity:.

Frequently the first sign of endometrial cancer is bleeding in post-menopausal women. Transgender men who have any bleeding after the cessation of menses with androgen therapy should have an endometrial biopsy and possibly an ultrasound done to rule-out endometrial cancer. A number of skeletal and cartilaginous changes take place after the onset of puberty at various rates and times.

Sometime in the late teen years epiphyseal closure in other words, the ends of bones are fused closed takes place and the length of bones is fixed for life. Consequently, total height and the length of arms, legs, hands, and feet are not affected by HRT.

Many of these differences are described in the Desmond Morris book Manwatching. The psychological changes are harder to define, since HRT is usually the first physical action that takes place when transitioning. This fact alone has a significant psychological impact, which is hard to distinguish from hormonally induced changes. It is assumed that the effect of the start of physical treatment is such a relief, and decreases pre-existing aggression so much, that the overall level of aggression actually decreases.

Some transgender men report mood swings, increased anger, and increased aggressiveness after starting androgen therapy. Many transgender men, however, report improved mood, decreased emotional lability, and a lessening of anger and aggression. Israel et al.

Before oophorectomy, it is difficult and frequently impractical to fully suppress estrogen levels into the normal male range, especially with exogenous testosterone aromatizing into estrogen, hence why the female ranges are referenced instead. In post-oophorectomy trans men, Israel et al.

See the table below for all of the precise values they suggest. The optimal ranges listed for testosterone only apply to individuals taking bioidentical hormones in the form of testosterone including esters and do not apply to those taking synthetic AAS e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Health care and medicine. Rights issues. Society and culture. Theory and concepts. By country. See also. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. January Main article: Sleep apnea. Main article: Polycythemia. Transgender portal. September Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved March 13, Feb Retrieved 9 May Tucker March 7, Retrieved December 13, Hyde; Marianne S.

Gengenbach Conservative Management of Sports Injuries. Int J Womens Dermatol.

Oral testosterone is provided exclusively as testosterone undecanoate. Garnick MB. In addition, the condition must be associated with clinically significant distress or impairment. Testosterone replacement therapy can improve the signs and symptoms of low testosterone in these men. Doctors may prescribe testosterone as injections, pellets, patches or gels.

Transgender testerone therapy

Transgender testerone therapy. Free E-newsletter

Masculinizing hormone therapy usually includes testosterone to suppress the production of estrogen. Dosing is patient specific and is discussed with the physician.

This dosing can be weekly or biweekly depending on the individual patient. Hormone therapy for transgender individuals has been shown in medical literature to be generally safe, when supervised by a qualified medical professional. Transgender hormone therapy replacement may limit fertility potential. Options include semen cryopreservation , oocyte cryopreservation , and ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

A study due to be presented at ENDO the Endocrine Society 's conference reportedly shows that even after one year of treatment with the hormone testosterone , a transgender man can preserve his fertility potential.

Psychiatric conditions can commonly accompany or present similar to gender incongruence and gender dysphoria. For this reason, patients are assessed using DSM-5 criteria or ICD criteria in addition to screening for psychiatric disorders.

The Endocrine Society requires physicians that diagnose gender dysphoria and gender incongruence to be trained in psychiatric disorders with competency in ICD and DSM The healthcare provider should also obtain a thorough assessment of the patient's mental health and identify potential psychosocial factors that can affect therapy. The ICD system requires that patients have a diagnosis of either transsexualism or gender identity disorder of childhood.

The criteria for transsexualism include: [18]. Individuals cannot be diagnosed with transsexualism if their symptoms are believed to be a result of another mental disorder , or of a genetic or chromosomal abnormality. For a child to be diagnosed with gender identity disorder of childhood under ICD criteria, they must be pre-pubescent and have intense and persistent distress about being the opposite sex.

The distress must be present for at least six months. The child must either:. The DSM-5 states that at least two of the following criteria must be experienced for at least six months' duration for a diagnosis of gender dysphoria : [19].

In addition, the condition must be associated with clinically significant distress or impairment. Some organizations — but fewer than in the past — require that patients spend a certain period of time living in their desired gender role before starting hormone therapy. This period is sometimes called real-life experience RLE. The Endocrine Society stated in that individuals should either have a documented three months of RLE or undergo psychotherapy for a period of time specified by their mental health provider, usually a minimum of three months.

Transgender and gender non-conforming activists, such as Kate Bornstein , have asserted that RLE is psychologically harmful and is a form of "gatekeeping", effectively barring individuals from transitioning for as long as possible, if not permanently. Some transgender people choose to self-administer hormone replacement medications, often because doctors have too little experience in this area, or because no doctor is available.

Others self-administer because their doctor will not prescribe hormones without a letter from a psychotherapist stating that the patient meets the diagnostic criteria and is making an informed decision to transition. Because many individuals must pay for evaluation and care out-of-pocket , costs can be prohibitive. Access to medication can be poor even where health care is provided free.

The report concluded in part: "The NHS must provide a service that is easy to access so that vulnerable patients do not feel forced to turn to DIY remedies such as buying drugs online with all the risks that entails.

Patients must be able to access professional help and advice so that they can make informed decisions about their care, whether they wish to take the NHS or private route without putting their health and indeed their lives in danger.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Health care and medicine. Rights issues. Society and culture. Theory and concepts. By country. See also. See also: Transgender hormone therapy male-to-female. See also: Transgender hormone therapy female-to-male. See also: Real-life experience transgender. Transgender portal. November 30, Teen Vogue. Deutsch MB, ed. June Available at transcare. Howard Brown. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

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Sign up now. By Mayo Clinic Staff. Show references Bhasin S, et al. Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency syndromes: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Garnick MB. Testosterone replacement therapy faces FDA scrutiny. Journal of the American Medical Association. Longo DL, et al. New York, N. Accessed Feb. Synder PJ. Overview of testosterone deficiency in older men.

AUA position statement on testosterone therapy. American Urological Association. Vigen R. Association of testosterone therapy with mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke in men with low testosterone levels. FDA adding general warning to testosterone products about potential for venous blood clots.

Food and Drug Administration. Nippoldt T expert opinion. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Takahashi PY expert opinion. See also Pre-ejaculation fluid and pregnancy Birth control options Cancer treatment for men: Possible sexual side effects Discolored semen: What does it mean?

Transgender hormone therapy (female-to-male) - Wikipedia

This form of hormone therapy is given as one of two types, based on whether the goal of treatment is feminization or masculinization :. Some intersex people may also undergo hormone therapy, either starting in childhood to confirm the sex they were assigned at birth , or later in order to align their sex with their gender identity. Non-binary or genderqueer people may also undergo hormone therapy in order to achieve a desired balance of sex hormones. Many centers how use an informed consent model that does not require any routine formal psychiatric evaluation but instead focuses on reducing barriers to care by ensuring a person can understand the risks, benefits, alternatives, unknowns, limitations, and risks of no treatment.

The Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People SOC require that the patient be referred by a mental health professional who has diagnosed the patient with persistent gender dysphoria. The Standards also require that the patient give informed consent , in other words, that they consent to the treatment after being fully informed of the risks involved.

Feminizing hormone therapy usually includes medication to suppress testosterone production and induce feminization. Types of medication include testosterone blockers, estrogen, and progesterone. After six to eight weeks of spironolactone therapy, estrogen can be started to further suppress testosterone production and promote feminization. Masculinizing hormone therapy usually includes testosterone to suppress the production of estrogen. Dosing is patient specific and is discussed with the physician.

This dosing can be weekly or biweekly depending on the individual patient. Hormone therapy for transgender individuals has been shown in medical literature to be generally safe, when supervised by a qualified medical professional. Transgender hormone therapy replacement may limit fertility potential. Options include semen cryopreservation , oocyte cryopreservation , and ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

A study due to be presented at ENDO the Endocrine Society 's conference reportedly shows that even after one year of treatment with the hormone testosterone , a transgender man can preserve his fertility potential. Psychiatric conditions can commonly accompany or present similar to gender incongruence and gender dysphoria. For this reason, patients are assessed using DSM-5 criteria or ICD criteria in addition to screening for psychiatric disorders. The Endocrine Society requires physicians that diagnose gender dysphoria and gender incongruence to be trained in psychiatric disorders with competency in ICD and DSM The healthcare provider should also obtain a thorough assessment of the patient's mental health and identify potential psychosocial factors that can affect therapy.

The ICD system requires that patients have a diagnosis of either transsexualism or gender identity disorder of childhood. The criteria for transsexualism include: [18]. Individuals cannot be diagnosed with transsexualism if their symptoms are believed to be a result of another mental disorder , or of a genetic or chromosomal abnormality.

For a child to be diagnosed with gender identity disorder of childhood under ICD criteria, they must be pre-pubescent and have intense and persistent distress about being the opposite sex. The distress must be present for at least six months. The child must either:. The DSM-5 states that at least two of the following criteria must be experienced for at least six months' duration for a diagnosis of gender dysphoria : [19]. In addition, the condition must be associated with clinically significant distress or impairment.

Some organizations — but fewer than in the past — require that patients spend a certain period of time living in their desired gender role before starting hormone therapy. This period is sometimes called real-life experience RLE. The Endocrine Society stated in that individuals should either have a documented three months of RLE or undergo psychotherapy for a period of time specified by their mental health provider, usually a minimum of three months.

Transgender and gender non-conforming activists, such as Kate Bornstein , have asserted that RLE is psychologically harmful and is a form of "gatekeeping", effectively barring individuals from transitioning for as long as possible, if not permanently. Some transgender people choose to self-administer hormone replacement medications, often because doctors have too little experience in this area, or because no doctor is available. Others self-administer because their doctor will not prescribe hormones without a letter from a psychotherapist stating that the patient meets the diagnostic criteria and is making an informed decision to transition.

Because many individuals must pay for evaluation and care out-of-pocket , costs can be prohibitive. Access to medication can be poor even where health care is provided free. The report concluded in part: "The NHS must provide a service that is easy to access so that vulnerable patients do not feel forced to turn to DIY remedies such as buying drugs online with all the risks that entails. Patients must be able to access professional help and advice so that they can make informed decisions about their care, whether they wish to take the NHS or private route without putting their health and indeed their lives in danger.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Health care and medicine. Rights issues. Society and culture. Theory and concepts. By country. See also. See also: Transgender hormone therapy male-to-female. See also: Transgender hormone therapy female-to-male. See also: Real-life experience transgender. Transgender portal. November 30, Teen Vogue. Deutsch MB, ed. June Available at transcare. Howard Brown. Archived from the original on Retrieved August International Journal of Transgenderism.

Updated recommendations from the world professional association for transgender health standards of care. Am Fam Physician. December Translational Andrology and Urology. Feb May Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity.

Human Reproduction Oxford, England. ICDVersion Archived from the original PDF on New York: Routledge. Med Clin Barc in Spanish. Pharmacological body alteration. Bodybuilding supplement Breast enlargement Clitoris enlargement Ergogenic use of anabolic steroids Growth hormone therapy Transgender hormone therapy Feminizing hormone therapy Masculinizing hormone therapy Penis enlargement Performance-enhancing substance.

Androgens and antiandrogens. Antiestrogens e. Alfatradiol Dutasteride Epristeride Finasteride Saw palmetto extract. Androstenedione immunogens: Androvax androstenedione albumin Ovandrotone albumin Fecundin. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Antiandrogens e. Mixed mechanism of action: Danazol Gestrinone Androstenedione immunogens: Androvax androstenedione albumin Ovandrotone albumin Fecundin.

Progestogens and antiprogestogens. Aglepristone Mifepristone. GnRH and gonadotropins. Follicle-stimulating hormone Human chorionic gonadotropin Luteinizing hormone Menotropin Urofollitropin. Categories : Endocrine procedures Gender transitioning Transgender and medicine. Hidden categories: CS1 Spanish-language sources es All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles with unsourced statements from March Namespaces Article Talk.

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Preparations Follicle-stimulating hormone Human chorionic gonadotropin Luteinizing hormone Menotropin Urofollitropin.

Transgender testerone therapy

Transgender testerone therapy